Vivat Germania latina, Vivat Latinitas teutonica!

Joseph S. Freedman

When the Process is Part of the Product:

Searching for Latin–Language Writings on Philosophy and the Arts used at Central European Academic Institutions during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries [1]



While Central Europe witnessed a growing trend towards the use of the vernacular during the 16th century, Latin still remained the dominant language in Central European academic institutions well into the 18th century. [2] This paper will discuss Latin language writings on philosophy and the arts which arose in connection with academic instruction at those academic institutions. More specifically, this paper will focus on the following six questions (1–6): 1. What are the various subject–matters which comprised "philosophy and the arts" at Central European academic institutions during the 16th and 17th centuries? 2. What are the various genres of writings – – and the component parts of these genres – – that comprised philosophy and the arts? 3. How does one find such writings at individual libraries and other information repositories within as well as beyond Germany? 4. What are some of the factors and problems involved in searching for such writings? 5. How does this search process enable us to gain knowledge concerning 16th– and 17th–century writings on philosophy and the arts? 6. Can this search process provide us with additional insights pertaining to yet other areas of inquiry?

In order to search for writings on philosophy and the arts, one must know which subject–matters fall within these two broad categories. Many writings on philosophy and the arts which arose in connection with instruction in philosophy and the arts during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries devoted attention to one or more the following: 1. the concept of philosophy and/or the concept of the arts; 2. which disciplines fall within the umbella of philosophy and/or the arts; 3. how those disciplines comprising philosophy and/or the arts should be classfied and/or defined and/or described. [3] Tables A and B present classifications given by two Central Europe authors active during this period. In Table A , Henricus Paxmannus divides philosophy into the nine basic subject–matters which appeared in most such classifications during most of the sixteenth century. [4]

In Table B, The two classifcations – – one of philosophy, the other of the arts – – presented in Table B are taken from two dissertations – – held at the University of Ingolstadt in 1610 and 1611 – – that were presided over by Georgius Clainerus. [5] Clainerus's two classifications contain the same basic subject–matters as does that of Paxmannus. Yet Clainerus's classifications also reflect the fact that from the mid–sixteenth century onwards the subject–matters which made up philosophy began to be considered at a higher level than the subject–matters which was classfiied as arts. Philosophy (philoosophia) includes "rational" philosophy as a sub–category of practical philosophy. While Clainerus does not state what is included within rational philosophy, it can be assumed that logic is part thereof. However, Clainerus may also wished to exclude rhetoric, poetics, and grammar therefrom; these latter subject–matters – – together with the mechanical arts (artes serviles) – – are listed as "arts"(artes).

it was standard practice to include logic within philosophy yet to exclude rhetoric, poetics, and grammar therefrom at those ixteenth– and seventeenth–century Central European academic institutions where the arts and philosophy curriculum was in the hands of Jesuits. [6] Such also appears to have been the case at the Jesuit Academy in Trier; this is evident from Table C, which shows the manner in which its library was organized according to an extant catalog in manuscript form from the year 1586. [7] The organization of this library catalog closely mirrors the manner in which the curriculum of Central European Jesuit institutions was organized during the late sixteenth as well as during the seventeenth century.

Its three " faculties" – – i.e., theology, philosophy, and the "humanities" (humaniores literarae – – correspond to the three general divisions of the Jesuit curriculum. This manuscript library catalog divides the humanities in the six "classes" (classes) of the humanities into Greek, rhetoric, poetics/poetry, histories / history, dictionaries / lexica, and grammars. At most Jesuit institutions, the humanities curriculum consisted of grades or classes for (given here in the order of highest to lowest) rhetoric, poetics / poetry, upper–level grammar, middle–level grammar, and lower–level grammar. Occasionally, one or more pre–grammar (i.e., early childhood) grades were included as well.

In this Trier library catalog, its section on philosophy is divided into six, hierarchically arranged classes: metaphysics, physics, medicine, logic, ethics, mathematics. These philosophy classes also have their parallel within the Jesuit philosophy curriculum as institutionalized in Central Europe during this period. [8] Metaphysics, physics, and logic were normally considered as its principal subject–matters, within metaphysics at the upper, physics at the middle, and logic at the lower level. Mathematics and ethics were normally taught as well; subject–matter from the domain of medicine was often included within physics.

The manner in which a bookseller's catalog is organized is shown in Table D; this is how Simon Paulli classified the subject–matters of those books which were being offered for sale in the year 1671. [9] Paulli appears to use the term "literary history" (historia literaria) in order to refer to the entire scope of information and knowledge contained in books, i.e., within those categories of books which he is offering for sale. [10] Classes 1, 2, and 3 within this classification by Paullus have their parallel in the theology, jurisprudence, and medicine faculties at Central European universities.Paullus's class 4, i.e., miscellaneous (miscelleanea) is roughly equivalent to "philosophy and the arts. "

On the basis of Paulli's book catalog, the two postulates can be ventured here. [11]

First, the expansion of knowledge – – as refined in the development of new subject–areas and disciplines from the early 17th century onwards – – manifested itself principally within the domain of philosophy and the arts. And second, from the late 16th century onwards, the parameters of philosophy itself became increasingly limited; many subject–matters that had been subsumed within philosophy – – i.e., mathematical disciplines – – came to be understood as no longer part thereof.

When searching for sixteenth– and seventeenth–century writings pertaining to philosophy and the arts, one must also know which genres of writings were utilized in order to publish – – or to circulate in manuscript form – – this subject–matter. The principal genres used to do this were textbooks, glossaries of philosophical terms, disputations, orations, and curriculum plans / reports. During this period, glossaries of philosophical terms included the following [12] : 1. collections of axioms ascribed to Aristotle, to St. Bede, and to other authors; 2.philosophical lexicons. Orations were sometimes held and published 1. as part of the academic curriculum in philosophy and the arts, 2. in connection with the granting of degrees, and 3. on the occasion of special events (e.g., the opening of a new school). [13]

Curriculum plans and reports appeared in a number of formats. Announcements of instruction to be offered during the upcoming semester or academic year were frequently published as broadsheets; in some cases, individual professors / teachers composed announcements for their own instruction. [14] Also extant are timetables of instruction; these timetables often mention the days of the week and the times when specific subjects were to be to taught and when specific kinds of academic exercises – – e.g., repetitions, translations, declamations, disputations, style exercises – – were to be held. [15] Inspections and visitations of academic institutions sometimes were accompanied – – or followed – – by a description or plan of academic instruction. [16] Some curriculum plans are discussed the methods used / to be used within this academic instruction. [17]

Two additonal points pertaining to curriculum plans can be noted here. First, it can be postulated that curriculum plans intended for a group of academic institutions generally provide us with less accurate information concerning actual academic instruction than do curriculum plans intended for individual academic institutions. Especially useful are printed curriculum plans corrected by hand and which reflect what was actually taught in or planned for a certain year, semester, date, or time. [18] And second, style exercises were prescribed in most Central European curriculum plans written during the 16th and 17th centuries. Yet published examples of such style exercises appear to have been very rare in Central Europe during this period.

From table E, it can be ascertained that style exercises (exercitia styli) are included in the academic exercises prescribed for a school (Paedagogium Fratri) in the year 1568; the curriculum of this school is included within an announcment of lectures scheduled to be given at the University of Rostock during the Summer Semester of 1568. The lectures pertaining to the subject matter of "philosophy and the arts" are listed here under "liberal arts" (in artibus liberalibus). Various names were used during the sixteenth century to refer to the broad parameters of philosophy and the arts. [19] Three years earlier, in a broadsheet which lists lectures to be offered at the University of Rostock during the Summer Semester of 1565, the label "arts and languages" (in artibus et linguis) was used to identify this same subject–matter. [20]

The two principal genres used for writings on philosophy and the arts published in Central Europe during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, however, were textbooks and disputations. [21] Textbooks – – which can be said to included monographic treatises as well – – included editions of ancient Latin and Greek authors, commentaries on these writings, and "independent" treatises published by a given (individual or corporate) author. [22] Some treatises and commentaries went through numerous editions and imprints. [23]

Such textbooks could vary in length from less than 100 to over 1,000 pages; they normally consisted of text together with one or more of the following (a. –d.): a. dedication(s); b. preface(s); c. letter(s) to the reader; d. poem(s). [24] The "text" of such textbook normally fell between – – or at – – one of the following two extremes (1. –2.): 1. very precisely organized treatises divided into sections / books, sub–sections / chapters, questions / problems, theorems / precepts and sometimes accompanied by – – or mainly consisting of – – dichtomous charts; 2. treatises consisting mainly of very long sentences and / or phrases with very few organizational sub–sections. [25] The dedications to textbooks frequently were written in very elegant Latin with very long sentences. [26]

Textbooks – – understood as discussed here – – were published without interruption during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. [27] Disputations, on the other hand, apparently did not begin to be published in Central Europe until about the year 1550 and were only published in substantial quantities from the end of the sixteenth century onwards. [28] Disputations were normally held by a presider (praeses) together with one or more respondents (respondens; respondentes) and with one or more opponents; in most cases, the authorship of disputations is not specified.

Disputations were normally held for one of two reasons. First disputations were generally held as part of the requirements for the attainment of academic degrees, including masters and bachelors degrees in the arts. Such disputations held in conjugation with academic degrees seem to have evolved into the doctoral disseration and the masters thesis. And second, disputations also were held for practice purposes; such practice disputations seem to have evolved into the practice of debate as institutionalized at academic institutions well into the twentieth century. [29]

Disputations normally consisted of theses, which might – – or might not – – be accompanied by commentary (in the form of text). Sometimes the main "Absatz" of the disputation – – consisting of theses which might be accompanied by text – – could be followed by one or more sets of supplementary theses or even by a supplementary treatise. Disputations could vary in length from a single broadsheet to 64 pages or longer. [30]

 

A relatively short example of a disputation – – consisting in entirety of a title page and two pages of text– – is reproduced in Tables F, G, and H. The title page of this disputation (Table F) is is evident this disputation – – on the subject–matter of Philipp Melanchthon's logic – – was held – – according to the information on this title page – – at a school in Brieg (in Silesia) on July 12, 1614 at 8:00 a.m.; apparently it was published during that same year. [31] The presider – – Melchior Laubanus – – was rector of this school in Brieg. The respondent in this disputation – – Solomon Paulli – – was a dative of Danzig (Dantiscanus). Very unusual, however, is the the fact that the names of opponents are given; this was very rare in disputations held previous to the eighteenth century.

The text of this disputation (Tables G and H) consists of 12 theorems; commentary is appended to theorem 7 only. The theorems are devoted to basic concepts of logic as well as to the distinction between logic and rhetoric. Looking at Table G, there are handwritten annotations at the top of leaf 1 verso, on the left and right sides of theorem 2, and on the left side of theorem 7. These annotations, which include references to passages within Aristotle's writings, were very possibly written by someone who participated in or listened to this disputation when it was held during the morning of July 12, 1614. [32]

From the end of the sixteenth century onwards, professors – – especially at Protestant, Central European academic institutions – – often conceived and presided over planned, well–organized series of disputations which were intended to survey and/or examine some given academic discipline, general subject matter, or topic. These disputations, which were frequently held by students serving as respondents, could be published individually and/or published – – often including some introductory text by the professor – – as a monograph–length volume. [33] Two or more monographic treatises were sometimes published together under the umbrella of a single publication which could be used as a textbook. [34] Multiple genres could be contained with a single work (e.g., a group of disputations could be appended to a philosophical glossary). [35]

Where and how, then, does one search for these various genres of sixteenth– and seventeenth–century writings on philosophy and the arts? Well over two hundred libraries in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland house more or less substantial holdings of 16th– and 17th–Century Writings which arose in connection with Central European academic instruction in Philosophy and the Arts. [36] These "information repositories" are mostly libraries but also include some archives, museums, and private collections. The following are among the genres of relevant libraries (a.–k.): a. university libraries; b. municipal libraries; c. state libraries (Staatsbibliotheken), d. provincial libraries (Landesbibliotheken), e. consolidated libraries (i.e., university and municipal libraries, university and state libraries), f. seminary libraries; g. monastery libraries; h. school libraries; i. libraries belong to persons having titles of nobility; j. libraries of specialized research institutes (e.g., the Max–Planck–Institut für europäische Rechtsgeschichte); k. personal libraries / private collections

Central European writings can also be found in many other libraries worldwide. In England, relatively few writings on philosophy and the arts were published for use in academic instruction during the 16th and 17th centuries; Latin–language writings published on the continent of Europe apparently were frequently used of this purpose. [37] In some regions of Europe, local printers republished Latin language philosophical writings which had been published originally in the German language area of Europe. [38]

In some information repositories, special collections contain philosophical writings arising from Central European academic instruction; two examples can be given here. First, the Uppsala University Library has a special section of these disputations in which Swedish students studying abroad – – mostly at Central European universities – – acted as respondents. [39] And second, the National Library of Medicine (Bethesda, Maryland, USA) has a collection of writings – – mostly disputations and other short treatises – – pertaining to medicine which were published in connection with instruction at early modern academic institutions. A substantial portion of these writings originated at individual Central European universities and were actually devoted to the subject–matter of natural philosophy. [40]

Turning the question of how to find such sixteenth– and seventeenth–century writings on philosophy and the arts, the following general observation should be made: even specialized guides to individual information repositories – – e.g., Handbuch der historischen Buchbestände – – normally do not describe holdings in sufficient detail to guide researchers looking for writings pertaining to academic philosophy and the arts during the 16th and 17th centuries. It would not be reasonable to expect this, however, since even such specialized guides are written for a very broad spectrum of potential researchers.

Looking for authors of 16th and 17th century academic writings is normally relatively straightforward if one knows their names (and one or more variations of those names). Looking for writings on individual subject–matters authored by persons whose names one does not yet know, however, is a much more difficult undertaking. As will be discussed shortly, sixteenth– and seventeenth–century academic writings on philosophy and the arts are cataloged in very diverse ways at the individual information repositories which house them.

An additional general problem is posed by the fact that most subject catalogs and shelf–list catalogs (i.e., those in printed and manuscript formats) presently used in information repostories today have their origin in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These post–AD 1800 catalogs classify philosophy – – and knowledge as a whole – – in ways quite different from sixteenth and seventeenth century conceptions of philosophy and knowledge. By the 19th century, philosophy normally included metaphysics, logic, ethics, epistemology, and aesthetics. 16th and 17th century academic philosophical writings on physics, mathematics, family life, politics, rhetoric, grammar, poetics, and physiognomy are frequently found in very diverse sections of such 19th and 20th century catalogs.

In the case of many such subject–matters, they are often topics which are discussed within more general writings; one must know which kinds of general writings might discuss those desired topics. For example, the the concepts of definition (definitio) and classification (divisio) were sometimes discussed within disputations devoted to one or both of these concepts. [41] But these two concepts also were routinely discussed within logic textbooks. The subject–matter of family life (oeconomica) was sometimes discussed within treatises written specifically on that subject–matter as well as within treatises on politics, on ethics, and on practical philosophy as a whole. [42] The concept of woman (foemina; mulier) was discussed within writings on many different philosophical subject–matters, including physics, ethics, family life, politics, and physiognomy. [43] And these as well as other philosophy and arts disciplines were commonly discussed within encyclopedic philosophical writings; the latter begin to be published in Central Europe from the end of the sixteenth century onwards. [44]

When looking for such writings on philosophy and the arts at information repositories in many regions in and beyond Europe, one will encounter a remarkable variety of ways in which these writings are classified and arranged. Frequently, more than one method of classification / arrangement is used within a single information repository. The manner in which sixteenth– and seventeenth–century writings on philosophy and the arts is classified and arranged at five such information repositories is outlined in Tables I, J, K, L, and M.

A sense of the diversity of ways in which these writings are classified and arranged within different kinds of libraries can be gained through these five examples.

The subject–catalog of the Tübingen University Library (Table I) serves as one example of how nineteenth–century paradigms of philosophy have been used to classify writings on philosophy and the arts from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. These sixteenth and seventeenth century writings can be found in Aa, Ab., Ac. Ad, Ae, Af, Ag, andAh as well as in Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Dh and Ec. Such writings often can be found within sections on local and/or regional history (withinL at the Tübingen University Library);

these writings,which were often published in relatively small quantities in connection with academic instruction and/or other academic functions, are frequently very difficult or impossible to locate elsewhere.

At the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel (Table J), sixteenth– and seventeenth–century writings on philosophy and the arts are to be found within four major collections, each of which is uniquely organized; from Table J one can ascertain where within each of these four collections one is most likely to find such writings. The Helmstedt collection (C. in Table J) was the original core of the library, though the Augusteer Collection (A. in Table J) assumed this function from 1635 onwards. The "Middle" Collection (B. in Table J) represents most of what has been purchased by the library from early eighteenth century onwards.

Section X of the Middle Collection may eventually become one of the largest components of the Wolfenbüttel library; the library has a substantial annual allocation for the purchase of seventeenth–century titles, almost all of which are classified within the "X" range. Many of these newly acquired seventeenth–century titles in the "X" range fall within the scope of philosophy and the liberal arts. [45]

The contents of the four major sections of the Cologne University and Municipal Library (Universitäts– und Stadtbibliothek) which consist mainly of early printed books are presented in Table K. It is evident that significant concentrations of early printed works pertaining to philosophy and the arts can be found within VIII. in the Gymnasialbibliothek section (section A.), within D in the Wallraf section (section B ) and within P in the "New" Cataloging System (section C.). Yet other parts of these sections – – e.g., IIb (Griechische Schriftsteller) of section A – – also contain many relevant works. And some academic disputations on philosophy and the arts held at the University of Cologne during the seventeenth century are extant and can be accessed via the bibliography cited in section 5 of Table K. [46]

Turning now to the Wiesbaden Provincial Library (Landesbibliothek), section 1 of Table L outlines this library's central catalog of printed books. Writings on philosophy and the arts published in the sixteenth– and seventeenth centuries can be found not only in B–Bg(Philosophie), but also within A (Allgemeines), Bi–By (Paedagogik), Gs 8420 (Nassau < – –Schulwesen < – – Herborn), J (Sprache und Literatur), P (Staatswissenschaft), S (Naturwissenschaften), T (Physik, Chemie), and U (Mathematik, Astronomie). But especially valuable is a special catalog of writings printed in the area of the Nassau province, i.e., in Diez, Idstein, Herborn, Oberursel, Siegen, and Weilburg. [47] It could be argued that the published textbooks, disputations, and curriculum plans originating at the Herborn Academy – – the vast bulk of which having been assigned call numbers within the "Gs 8420" and "Herb" ranges – – constitute the most valuable holdings on philosophy and the arts at theWiesbaden Provincial Library; in case of some individual writings, this library appears to hold the only known extant copy. [48]

Unlike its European counterparts, North American libraries have had to build their collections through donations and purchases. The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign has substantial holdings on philosophy and the arts published during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries largely to the efforts of two professors at that same university: Thomas Whitfield Baldwin and Harris Francis Fletcher. [49] Baldwin and Fletcher were able to build substantial holdings in this subject–area via the purchase of rare printed and manuscript works in Europe over the course of many decades.

A large portion of the rare printed holdings at the University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign are classified according to the Dewey Decimal System (DDC), a system commonly utilized at public and school libraries in the United States; A.. in Table M highlights some ranges within this general section of the library's holdings. Four special sections of the collection – – listed in B. of Table M – – are contain greater or lesser numbers of older printed works pertaining to philosophy and the arts. Almost all of the library's collections of sixteenth– and seventeenth–century printed works are accessible chronological file; yet searching this chronological file is a very time consuming endeavor.

One should take such logistical factors into account when searching for writings on this and/or other subject matters. The catalogs of individual information repositories – – in electronic, printed, and manuscript form – – vary in their degree of completeness and their ease of use. And the holdings of some individual information repositories are more easily accessible – – depending, for example, on whether or not relevant holdings are kept in remote storage – – than others. These and other similar considerations are important when deciding which information repositories to utilize – – and the extent to which one should use them – – for subject–based searches. [50]

Online catalogs – – created for individual information repositories as well as for groups of such information repositories – – provide excellent assistance to the researcher looking for writings on academic philosophy from the 16th and 17th centuries. Particularly useful are title word and keyword searches as well as the ability in many online catalogs to limit searches, for example, by year (or by a range of years) and/or by language (where "Latin" usually can be selected). With respect to the usefulness of such online catalogs when searching for sixteenth– and seventeenth century writings, the following five points can be mentioned here. First, online catalogs created for individual information repositories still generally provide more accurate and more detailed information that multi–repository catalogs such as OCLC First Search / World Cat and the Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog (KVK).

Second, online catalogs of individual repositories vary greatly in usefulness the holdings of some such online catalogs are much more complete than others. Some kinds of items (for example, collections of disputations) are not cataloged well – – or, not cataloged at all – – in some information repositories, with the result that online catalog records thereof are sometimes sketchy or non–existant. [51] Third, when an information repository replaces its online catalog interface with an "upgraded" version, the new interface normally is "different" – – and not in every respect "better" – – than the old interface. [52]

Fourth, the largest and most influential group of information users are more interested in current – – as opposed to historical – – information. Reserchers looking for historical materials tend to have relatively individualistic research agendas. The intention – – at least in theory – – of such researcheRs is to do research on topics which have not been investigated previously.

Researchers looking for current or recent materials, on the other hand, usually tend to look for information which is shared by many patrons (e.g., this week's finanical news; serial articles on a research topic which have been published over the past six months). Financial and other pressures are causing many information repositories to focus primarily upon serving the needs of the greatest number of patrons as opposed to the generally unique needs of individual researchers investigating historical (e.g., sixteenth– and seventeenth–century) topics.

Fifth and finally, the usefulness of online catalogs varies depends on which kinds of information one uses them to search for. Author and title searches normally are relatively straighforward. In the case of curriculum plans and curriculum announcments, however, such searches are relatively difficult; these curricular materials were frequently published anonymously with a variety of titles or – – especially in the use of many broadsides – – with no title at all. [53]

When one is searching for topics or subject–matters, however, the use of online catalogs can present additional challenges. In order to search for subject–terms, one must have some relatively clear idea as to what one is or might be looking for. Yet our knowledge concerning the general subject–area of philosophy and the arts during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is still so rudimentary that in many instances we do not know exactly what terms or subject–matters to look for. but limiting our searches to those terms, concepts, and subject–matters with which we already are famliar, to at least some extent we are limiting ourselves to that portion of this general subject–area.

Online searching often can be meaningfully augment with the use of printed and manuscript subject, shelf–list, and chronological catalogs. Through these non–electronic catalogs, we frequently can search serendipitiously, that is, we can search systematically for surprises. Online catalogs supplement – – and do not completely replace – – printed, typed, and manuscript catalogs as aids for finding sixteenth– and seventeenth century materials; I also would venture to say that no or almost no online catalog of any magnitude actually contains very single one of those very works to which is supposed to provide access.

Knowledge concerning where and how one can find writings on philosophy and arts which arose in connection with Central European academic instruction will enable us to identify very substantial numbers of these writings at information repositories located both in and beyond Central Europe. What can we learn by locating these writings in such large numbers? The following three general points can be made here in an attempt to provide a multifaceted answer to this question.

First, through such knowledge we can move toward an accurate assessment concerning when specific genres of philosophical writings began to be published regularly; on the basis of my own research, the following three hypotheses can be ventured here

(1.–3.): 1. Disputations held as part of Central European academic instruction in philosophy and the arts began to be published in moderate quantities – – especially at Roman Catholic academic institutions – – from the mid–16th century onwards.

2. Disputations held as part of Central European academic instruction in philosophy and the arts began to be published inlarger quantities – – especially at Protestant academic institutions – – from the end of the 16th century onwards.

3. Collections of disputations edited by individual praeses began to be published with regularly in Central Europe from the end of the 16th century onwards.

Moving to the second general point, through such knowledge we can move in the direction of a comprehensive assessement concerning when – – i.e., during which period(s) – – specific subject–matters were taught at academic institutions. On the basis of the holdings of those information repositories which I have used to date, the following four postulates can be made (1.–4.):

1. Writings on metaphysics – – or containing discussion of metaphysics – – apparently virtually ceased to be published in Central Europe after the first decade of the 16th century; they began to be published again in small quantities – – mostly at Roman Catholic academic institutions – – from the mid–16th century onwards and in large quantities – – especially at Protestant academic institutions – – from the end of the 16th century onwards.

2. Philosophical writings on the family and on politics – – and philosophical writings containing discussion of the family and of politics – – appear not to have ceased being published at the beginning of the 16th century and began to be published again at the end of that same century.

3. Writings on the subject–matter of style exercises (exercitium styli) did not begin to be published in large quantities in Central Europe until after 1650..

4. Writings on logic and rhetoric were published in especially large quantities in Central Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries, though disputations on the subject–matter of rhetoric appeared to have been published much less often than disputations on the subject–matter of logic.

The third and final general point is as follows: by examining the holdings of a wide range of information repositories pertaining to sixteenth and seventeenth century academic philosophy, we can slowly move in the direction of accessing the amount of extant primary source material pertaining to individual academic institutions, authors, and subject–matters. Ultimately, this would involve research in hundreds of information repositories and in an unknown number of uncatalogued collections. And in the process of doing so, one will discover a wide range of authors whose names have been forgotten for centuries.

When researching any given author of writings on philosophy and/or arts during this period, one might use catalogs and holdings of a large number of information repositories in order move towards answering the following questions (1.–3.):

1. What are the titles of those works for that given authors is wholly or partially responsible?

2. During which period of years and in what quantity did those works appear?

3.To what extent were some of these works more popular than others? In the case of a given academic institutions, one concentrate on a more limited number of information repositories in order to arrive at answers pertaining to the following queries (1.–2.):

1. What kinds of records – – in printed and/or in manuscript form – – are extant that pertain to instruction given in philosophy and the arts at that given academic institution?

2. For which time period or periods are those records available, and in what quantity or quantities?

When using subject catalogs, shelf lists, and chronological files in order to search for works on a specific philosophical discipline, subject–matter, or topic, one can collect data – – usually in the form of titles of specific writings – – in order to postulate answers to questions such as the following (1.–4.):

1. When is what appears to be the first – – or: a very early) date of publication for a work written on some given topic or subject–matter?

2. When did writings on some given topic or subject–matter began to be published regularly?

3. Were writings on some given topic or subject–matter published more frequently during some decades than others and/or more frequently in some regions of Europe than in others?

4. Can one surmise that writings on some given academic discipline, subject–matters, or topics were published in larger quantities than others? Once one has a broad general knowledge of extant holdings – – housed at an appropriate number and range of information repositories – – pertaining to any given academic institution, author, or subject–matter / topic, then one can make a judgment as to whether one has located a sufficient quantity of material in order to be able to write up and publish scholarly writings which arrive at specific hypotheses and/or conclusions.

Sixteenth– and seventeenth–century writings on philosophy and the arts – – which normally arose in connection with academic instruction both in and beyond Central Europe – –have generally remained unstudied to up the present day. One principal reason for this can be suggested here: the process involved in finding such writings is quite complex but rarely understood. Yet it would be a mistake to focus only on the published results of such research; when undertaking the study of these writings, the research process usually cannot be clearly separated from the resulting product. [54]

Much of the knowledge one has concerning these writings on philosophy and the arts is derived from one's own research in progress, i.e., from that stage or stages when one is in the process of finding primary source materials, some of which may be used in one or more publications. This knowledge can often be used to assist other researchers, including professional colleagues as well as students. And this process – – with its many facets and variations – – will have to be revisited as a necessary component of all future research and publication pertaining to this same genre of writings.


Please note: In its present encoding the fololowing section is (at least formally) rather complex. In order to achieve maximum comprehensibility it might be useful to adjust your screen to a rather hogh resolution and your browser to full window size. Sorry about the inconvenience!

A. Philosophical Disciplines Listed by Henricus Paxmannus (1556)

B. Philosophy and the Arts According to Georgius Clainerus S.J. (1610-1611)

Bild1

C. The Organization of the Library Catalog of the Jesuit Academy in Trier (1586)

D. Academic/professional Subject-Matters as Classified in a Bookseller's Catalog Published by Simon Paullus (1671)

Bild2

E. A Disputation Held at a School in Brieg (Silesia) in the Year 1614

Bild3

F. A Disputation Held at a School in Brieg (Silesia) in the Year 1614

Bild4

G. A Disputation Held at a School in Brieg (Silesia) in the Year 1614

Bild5

H. A Disputation Held at a School in Brieg (Silesia) in the Year 1614

Bild6

16th– and 17th–Century Printed Writings Pertaining to Academic Philosophy and the Arts as Cataloged at Five Information Repositories

I. Tübingen, University Library (Universitätsbibliothek)

(this library was cataloged in the 19th century and includes c. 40,000 titles which were printed during the 16th and 17th centuries)

1: Philosophy (Aa: General Works; Ab: Logik; Ac: Metaphysics; Ad: Aesthetics;

Ae: Psychology and Anthropology; Af: Ethics; Ag: Legal philosophy; Ah: Pedagogy

2: Mathematics and Natural Science (< – – – Ba: General Works)

3: Philology (Ca: General Works; Cd: Greek Classics; Ce: Roman Classics

4: Art and Modern Literature (< – – – Dh: Rhetoric)

5: Politics (Ea: General Works; Ec: Political Theory

6: History and Geography; G: Theology; H: Jurisprudence; I: Medicine

7: [Miscellaneous]; L: [titles pertaining to the area of Württemberg]

J.: Wolfenbüttel, Duke August Library (Herzog August Bibliothek)

This Library has four principal collections of printed works (1.– 4.):

1: the Augusteer Collection (c. 135,000 titles; collected between c. 1635 and c. 1670)

(when these books were bought by Duke August of Braunschweig–Lüneburg, they were grouped into the following categories [which are still used today] ):

Theologia Politica Geographica Geometrica Rhetorica
Juridica Oeconomica Astronomica Arithmetica Grammatica
Historica Ethica Musica Poetica Quodlibetica [a mis–cellanea category]
Bellica Medica Physica Logica

2: the "Middle" Collection (c. 150,000 titles) (begun shortly after 1700 and continued through the year 1950):

(only a few sections of this collection contain philosophical works, e.g..):

(L = Literatur):

Lg = Greek Literature (including Aristotle commentaries) Li = Neo–Latin Literature (including Aristotle commentaries)

(Q = Quodlibetica): a group of miscelleanea, including many philosophical works

(S = Staat): Sf = textbooks and other works on politics

(V = Philosophie): Va (Philosophy [general works]), Vb (Philosophy [specific topics] ),Vc (Psychology) Wa+ X = new purchases of old books (this section has been continued up to the present)

3: the Helmstedt Collection (begun in 1572, became the library of the University of Helmstedt in 1618;

(c. 50,000 titles) in 1810 most of this library was returned to Wolfenbüttel)

K: Theologica;L: Jurisprudentia; M: Medica, Physica, Magia; N.: Mathematica (and sub–disciplines); : Philosophia, Jus naturae; Oeconomica; Politica; P: [ancient and modern literature);, S, and T: Historia; Y: [Miscellaneous]

4. the Alvensleben Collection:

(c. 50,000 titles) (this consists mostly of late 16th century books; it is on permanent loan to the Duke August Library and is still not completed cataloged)

(it is broken down into the following rough categories):

: Theologica; B: Philosophia; C: Philosophia, Philologia; DE: Theologia; F, G, and H: Juridica : [miscellaneous]; L: Historica; M: Historica, Medica, Astronomica, Mathematica; : Medica, [funeral sermons], Juridica; T: Theologica; Y: Theologica [and other writings]

16th– and 17th–Century Printed Writings Pertaining to Academic Philosophy and the Arts as Cataloged at Five Information Repositories

K.: Cologne, University and Municipal Library (Universitäts– und Stadtbibliothek)

1. G.B. (=Gymnasialbibliothek) section: from the old Cologne University Library

I: Propedeutik

IV: Theologie

X: Naturwissenschaft

IIa: Philologie

V: Rechtswissenschaft

XI: Geschichte

IIb: Griechische

VI: Politik; Kameralistik

XII: Kupferstiche (Atlanten;

Schriftsteller

VII: Philosophie

Abbildungsbände)

IIc: Lateinische

VIII: Mathematik

XIII: Sammelbaende (including

Schriftsteller

IX: Medizin (now located

Dissertations / Disputations

III: Germanische

in a separate Central

on Philosophy and other

Literatur

Medical Library)

subject matters)

2. Wallraf section: from the old Cologne Municipal Library

: Philologia

D: Philosophia

G: Jurisprudentia

B: Historia

E: Medicina

H: Varia

C: Mathesis

F: Theologia

. Philologia:

I. Historia literaria; II. Bibliographia bibliothecii; Diplomatica;

[consists of

Origines typographicae; III. Paedagogia; IV. Grammatica;

of 11 sec–

V. Rhetorica; VI. Poesis; VII. Critica; VIII. Archaelogia;

tions (I. –XI.) ]:

IX.: Symbolica; X. Epigraphica; XI. Polymathia

. Philosophia [consists of 4 sections (I. –IV.) ]: I. Logica, Dialectica, Metaphysica;

II. Philosophie: Einteilung und Geschichte; III. Physica; IV. Historia naturalis

. Varia [consists of 3 sections (I. –III.)]: I. Werkausgaben; II.Periodica; III. Miscellanea

3. "New" Cataloging System ("Neue"Aufstellung): this was created in about the year 1900, apparently with the intention of integrating the G.B. and Wallaf sections within it:

G. Geschichte;

M: Militaria

R: Rechtswissenschaft

GG: Geographie

N: Naturwissenschaft

S: Schriftsteller

K: Kunstwissenschaft

P: Philosophie

T: Theologie

KG: Kulturgeschichte

PP: Paedagogik

V: Politikwissenschaft;

L: Literaturwissenschaft

Rh: Rheinische Abt.

Volkswirtschaft

. Subdivisions of Philosophie (P1–P13): P1: Bibliographie: Einleitung, Allgemeine Geschichte des Faches; P2: Geschichte der Philosophie des Altertums; P3: Geschichte der Philosophie

des Mittelalters; P4: Geschichte der Philosophie der Neuzeit;

P5: Logik; P6: Metaphysik; P7: Psychologie; P8: Naturphilosophie; P9:Ethik und Moraltheologie; P10: Rechtsphilosophie und

Naturrecht; P11: Philosophie der Geschichte; P12: Aesthetik; P13: Religionsphilosophie

4. Alte Drucke: ADbl = Alte Drucke blau; ADs = Alte Druck schwarz
These are two collections – – which do not appear to be arranged in any particular subject order – – of works published in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.

5. Akademic writings of Cologne University are listed in the following bibliography: Stauder, Peter. Die Hochschulschriften der alten Kölner Universität 1583–1798.
Ein Verzeichnis. München et al.: K. G. Saur: 1990. Many of these writings are within
the sections G.B. XIII; Diss. Köln, and 1 A.

16th– and 17th–Century Printed Writings Pertaining to Academic Philosophy and the Arts as Cataloged at Five Information Repositories

L.: Wiesbaden, Provincial Library (Landesbibliothek)

1. [Central Catalog of Printed Works]:

A. Allgemeines; B–Bg: Philosophie [< – – –B. Philosophie, Allgemeines; Ba–Bc. Einzelne Philosophen; Bd. Erkenntnistheorie und Logik; Metaphysik und Ontologie; Existenzphilosophie und Existentialismus; Be. Pyschologie; Bf. Naturphilosophie; Religionsphilosophie; Bg.; Aesthetik; Ethik];

Bi–By: Paedagogik; C: Biographie; D. Archälogie; E. Geschichte (Ausland);

F. Geschichte (Deutschland); G. Nassau [< – – Gs. Nassau, Schulwesen< – – Gs 8420: Dissertationen, Herborner); J. (= I.) Sprache und Literatur: Altertum; K. Sprache und Literatur: Deutsch; L. Sprache und Literatur: andere moderne Sprachen;

M. Religionswissenschaft; N. Rechtswissenschaft; P. Staatswissenschaft; Q. Kunst, Musik, Theater; R. Geographie; S. Naturwissenschaften; T. Physik, Chemie;

U. Mathematik, Astronomie; V. Technik; W. Land– und Forstwirtschaft; X. Bergbau;

Y. –Z. Medizin

2. [Special Section and Catalog of Works Printed in Nassau]:

a. printed works in this section in the library have call numbers beginning with the place of publication: 1. Diez; 2. Herb. = Herborn; 3. Sieg. = Siegen; 4. Jdst. = Idstein; 5. Urs. = Ursel; 6. Weilb. = Weilburg

b. Each part [= place of publication] of this special catalog is ordered chronologically; within each year, printed works are ordered alphabetically by author / title

M.: University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign (USA), Special Collections

1. [General Section of Collection]: is cataloged according to the Dewey Decimal System

(DDC): Certain call number ranges are likely to have relevant writings (e.g., a.–d.):

. 100 – 173 (includes): philosophy (general), metaphysics, psychology, astrology, physiognomy, writings on memory, logic, ethics, writings on the family

. 370–378, C, 379–396: education / pedagogy

. 475–478: Latin language grammar / poetics / pedagogy\

. 520; 808; 881; astronomy; rhetoric; ancient authors (< – – including

901–902 Aristotle commentaries; history

2. [Special Sections of the Collection]:

a. Baldwin: a collection focusing largely on philological writings, including grammar, logic, phrase books, poetics, rhetoric, vocabularies, and edition of / commentaries on ancient Greek and Latin authors

b. Italian: mostly writings published in the Italian peninsula in the 16th century

c. Stonehill: mostly writings published during the 16th century

d. [Theological Dissertation Collection]: an uncataloged, 120–volume collection in–

cludes some Central European philosophical dissertations published before 1700

3. A substantial portion of these Special Collections has not yet been cataloged.

• This collection is accessible almost in entirely through the chronological file.

• This collection is also accessible in great part if one knows the names of authors.



[1] The following collection of articles is frequently cited in this article: Joseph S. Freedman, Philosophy and the Arts in Central Europe, 1500–1700. Teaching and Texts at Schools and Universities, Variorum Collection Studies Series, CS626 (Aldershot et al.: Ashgate / Variorum, 1999; this will be referred to as Freedman (1999).

The following abbreviations are also used: HAB = Herzog August Bibliothek; LB = Landesbibliothek; LHB = Landes– und Hochschulbibliothek; UStB = Universitäts– und Stadtbibliothek; SUB = Staats– und Universitätsbibliothek; UB = Universitätsbibliothek

[2] The question of when – – i.e., in the course of which decades – – Latin gradually ceased to be used (both within and outside of academic institutions) is an important one, but one which will only be answerable on the basis of future research.

[3] The following article discusses this general topic: Joseph S. Freedman, "Classifications of Philosophy, the Sciences, and the Arts in Sixteenth– and Seventeenth–Century Europe, " The Modern Schoolman 72, no. 2 (1994): 37–65 and reprinted in Freedman, Philosophy and the Arts ("Footnote" 1): VII.

[4] This classification is given in the following work: Henricus Paxmannus, Themata ad disputandum proposita de philosophia, subiecto et fine (Witebergae: Excudebat Johannes Crato, 1556), fol. A4v–A5v, A6v, A7r [Herborn, Bibliothek des theologischen Seminars: A. B. 3448 (2)].

[5] Georgius Clainerus SJ, praes. and Franciscus Maximilianus Calchus, resp., Disputatio philosophica de artibus generatim, et arte artium speciatim; in ... Academia Ingolstadiensi, ... die {15} Decemb. proposita (Ingolstadii: Ex officina Ederiana apud Andream Angermarium, 1610) [München UB: 40 Philos. 470]; Georgius Clainerus SJ, praes. and Dionysius Keller OPraem, resp., Disputatio philosophica, de philosophia et physiologia, in ...Ingolstadiensium Academia publice proposita, die VIII. Julij anno 1611 (Ingolstadii: Ex typographeo Ederiano apud Andream Angermarium, 1611) [München UB: 40 Philos. 765a].

[6] Jesuit curricula at Bamberg, Dillingen, and Prague can be cited in this regard; refer to the curricula presented in Joseph S. Freedman, "Philosophy Instruction within the Institutional Framework of Central European Schools and Universities during the Reformation Era, " History of Universities 5 (1985): 117–166 (146, 149) and reprinted in Freedman, Philosophy and the Arts ("Footnote" 1): II as well as Joseph S. Freedman, "Encyclopedic Philosophical Writings in Central Europe during the High and Late Renaissance (ca. 1500 – ca. 1700), " Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte37 (1994): 212–256 (224, 236, 246, 255) and reprinted in Freedman, Philosophy and the Arts ("Footnote" 1): VI.

[7] Katalog der Bibliothek des Jesuitenkolleges vom Jahre 1586 (fol. 1r, B1v) [Trier, Stadtarchiv: 2228 / 1815 (Hss.)]

[8] Concerning this institutionalizationof the Jesuit curriculum refer to Freedman, "Philosophy Instruction" ("Footnote" 6) and Karl Hengst, Jesuit an Universitäten und Jesuitenuniversitäten (Paderborn et al.: Ferdinand Schönigh, 1981).

[9] Simon Paulli, Historia literaria, sive dispositio librorum omnium facultatum ac artium, secundum materias, in usum philobiblorum congesta (Argentorati: Sumptibus autoris, 1671), fol. *4v–**4v [Wolfenbüttel HAB: 456.14 Hist. (3)]; Paulli is referred to as a "Strasbourg bookseller" (bibliopola Argentorensis) on the title page of this work.

[10] With regard to the term "Historia literaria" refer to Helmut Zedelmaier, "Auswahlbibliographie zum Problemkomplex 'Polyhistorie, ' 'Historia literaria, ' und 'Erudtio' in der frühen Neuzeit, " Martin Mulsow and Helmut Zedelmaier, eds., Skepsis, Providenz, Polyhistorie. Jakob Friedrich Riemann (1668–1743) (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1998): 276–278.

[11] Also refer to Freedman, "Classifications" ("Footnote" 3).

[12] Examples of such writings (1. and 2.) are given in Freedman, "Encyclopedic Philosophical Writings" ("Footnote" 6), pp. 214–215, 232, 240–241, 252–253. During this period, Philosophical lexicons often placed definitions and descriptions of terms within broader discussions of concepts and topics; for example, see the following work: Johannes Micraelius, Lexicon philosophorum terminorum philosophis usitatorum, with an introduction by Lutz Geldsetzer (Stetini: Impensis Jermeiae Mamphrasii bibliop. typis Michaelis Höpferni, 1662; reprint ed.: Düsseldorf: Stern Verlag, 1966).

[13] Refer to the follwoing examples of 1. –3. above: 1. Bartholomaeus Clingius, Oratio de doctrina physica in promotione magistrorum, a decano collegii philosophici ... habita, die 10.Septembris (Rostochii: Stephanus Myliander excudebat, 1567) [Wolfenbüttel HAB: 394.26 Quodl. (2)]; 2. Nicolaus Andreas Granius, Orationes duae: Prior pro philosophia ... Posterior pro conjunctione et mutua necessitate disciplinarum (Rostochii: Ex typographia Stephani Myliandrini, 1608) [Wolfenbüttel HAB: 0 231.40 Helmst. (1)]; 3. Inauguratio illustris Gymnasii Casimiriani ...quae feliciter coepta & peracta, die 3. Julii anni currentis: et ... peracta fuit, a designatis scholarchis, rectore, & collegis Gymnasii Casimiriani (Coburgi: Excudebat Justus Hauck, 1605) [Wolfenbüttel HAB: 201.24 Quodl. (9)].

[14] Numerous examples of such announcements of instruction are cited in Freedman, "Philosophy and the Arts" ("Footnote" 1), II–VI; also see Table E in this article. A rough draft of instruction to be offered at the University of Helmstedt in the year 1582 consists entirely of individual, handwritten entries by the instructors themselves; this rough draft is to be found at the Hannover Staatsarchiv with the call number Cal. Br. 21, Nr. 4137 (= nr. 6).

[15] The following work contains these kindsof information: Johannes Grunius, Sciagraphia [Gr.] scholae trivialis recte aperiendae ... conscripta pro Gymnasio Jutrebocensi, & in gratiam tyronum, qui sceptrumscholasticum recens susceperunt (Vitebergae: Excusa typis Simonis Gronenbergii, 1579). [Göttingen SUB: 80 Didact. 52/57 (5)]

[16] Such a plan was prepared by the Arts Faculty at the University of Heidelberg in the year 1554; see Heidelberg, Universitätsarchiv: I, 3, 51, Bl. 7v–9r.

[17] Such is the case within a curriculum plan written for the Arts Faculty at the University of Freiburg / Breisgau in the year 1593; refer to Freedman, "Encyclopedic Philosophical Writings" ("Footnote" 6), pp. 225, 247–248

[18] A curriculum plan published in Herborn for the Winter Semester 1610–1611 was subsequently altered by hand on April 1, 1611 for use in the subsequent semester. See Joseph S.Freedman, "The Diffusion of Writing of Petrus Ramus in Central Europe, c. 1570 – c. 1630, " Renaissance Quarterly 46, no. 1 (1993): 98–152 (134, 137) and republished in Freedman, Philosophy and the Arts ("Footnote" 1): IV.

[19] The copy used for Table E is from the Wolfenbüttel HAB: 95.10 Quodl. 20 (253).

[20] Refer to the following copy of this broadsheet: Wolfenbüttel HAB: 95.10 Quodl. 20 (248).

[21] Methods of searching for textbooks – – usually extant in the form of lectures delivered by teachers and notes thereupon taken by students – – and disputations in manuscript form are not discussed within this article; Charles Lohr's bibliography of Renaissance Latin Aristotle Commentaries – – as cited in Freedman, "Encyclopedic Philosophical Writings" ("Footnote" 6): 216 – – is an excellent starting point for any search for philosophical writings in manuscript form.

[22] Refer to the examples of such works pertaining to Aristotle which are cited within Joseph S. Freedman, "Aristotle and the Content of Philosophy Instruction at Central European Schools and Universities during the Reformation Era, " Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 137, no. 2 (1993): 213–253 (226–229, 247–249) and reprinted in Freedman, Philosophy and the Arts ("Footnote" 1): V.

[23] This was true in the case of many writings by – – on commentaries on the writings of – – Bartholomew Keckermann; refer to the bibliography of these writings given in Joseph S. Freedman, "The Career and Writings of Bartholomew Keckermann (d. 1609), " Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 141, no. 3 (1997): 305–364 (338–358) and reprinted in Freedman, Philosophy and the Arts ("Footnote" 1): VIII.

[24] The individual textbooks authored by Clemens Timpler, for example, normally contained a dedication and frequently also included a preface and/or a letter to the reader and/or a poem; refer to the annotated bibliographical entries of Timpler's writings given in Joseph S. Freedman, European Academic Philosophy in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries. The Life, Significance, and Philosophy of Clemens Timpler (1563/4–1624), Studien und Materialien zur Geschichte der Philosophie 27, 2 vols. (Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1988), pp. 740–768.

[25] Timpler's textbooks can be said to fall close to the first exterme as given above; see Freedman, European Academic Philosophy ("Footnote" 24), pp. 740–768. A number of textbooks / monograph–length treatises falling close to the second extreme mentioned above are cited in Freedman, "Encyclopedic Philosophical Writings" ("Footnote" 6): 220.

[26] Timpler's own dedications – – as cited in Freedman, European Academic Philosophy ("Footnote" 24), pp. 740–768 generally fit this description.

[27] This is not true,however, for philosophical writings on all subject–matters. Writings on metaphysics, family life, and optics generally ceased to be published in Central Europe at the beginning of the sixteenth century but generally began to be published there again towards the end of that same century; refer to the discussion given in Freedman, "Encyclopedic Philosophical Writings" ("Footnote" 6).

[28] Discussion of extant disputations in manuscript form lies outside the scope of this article.

[29] For example, refer to the following work: David Potter, Debating in the colonial chartered colleges. An historical survey, 1642–1900, Teachers College, Columbia University, Contributions to education, no. 899 (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1944)

[30] Philosophical disputations generally appear to have become longer from the late seventeenth century onwards; refer to Hanspeter Marti, Philosophische Dissertationen deutscher Universitäten 1660–1750 (München et al: K.G. Saur, 1982).

[31] In some academic disputations published during this period, space was left where the day of the month normally would have been printed. This was done in those cases where the day on which the disputation was to be held had not been determined at the time of printing. The actual date of the disputation could then subsequently be written in by hand.

[32] The copy of this disputation – – which these annotations – – used for this article is to be found in the Zwickau Ratschulbibliothek with the call number 5.3.30 (41).

[33] For example, refer to the following work, which consists of 19 disputations and a short introduction: Thomas Sagittarius, Syntagma [Gr.] thesium logicarum ex consensu ... facultatis philosophicae in ... Ienesium Academia conscriptarum & disputatarum (Jenae: Apud Tobiam Steinmannum, 1598). [Wolfenbüttel HAB: 264.8 Quodl. (23)]

[34] For example, Clemens Timpler's textbook on optics was published togetherwith his treatiseon human physiognomy; see Freedman, European Academic Philosophy ("Footnote" 24), pp. 765–766.

[35] Refer to the following example of such a work: Axiomata philosopica Venerablis Bedae ... ex Aristotele & alijs praestantibus philosophis diligenter collecta: una cumbreibus quibusdam explicationibus ac limitationibus. Quibus accessere theses aliquot philosophicae, in diversis Academijs disputatae (Coloniae: Sumptibus Bernardi Gualteri, 1616). [Tübingen UB: Aa 234 R]..

[36] Information concerning such information repositories in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland is now avaiable in the Handbuch der historischen Buchstände; for Germany, refer to the following: Bernhard Fabian, ed., Handbuch der historischen Buchbestände in Deutschland, 23 vols. (Hildesheim: Olms–Weidmann, 1996–2000).

[37] Some such titles on philosophy and the arts can be found in H[erbert] M[ayow] Abrams, Catalogue of books printed on the continent of Europe, 1501–1600 in Cambridge Libraries, 2 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000; reprint of 1967 edition).

[38] For example, some Central European authors subsequently published in Krakow can be located with the use of the following bibliography: Marian Malicki et al., ed., Catalogus librorum Polonicorum saeculi XVI qui in Bibliotheca Jagellonica asservantur. Katalog Polonikow XVI Wieku Bibliotheki Jagiellonskiej, 3 vols. (Krakow: Sumptibus Universitatis Jagellonicae, 1992–1995).

[39] For example, refer to the following disputation from the Uppsala University Library with the call no Diss. suec. extra patriam 17 (12): Rodolphus Goclenius, praes. and Johannes Schroderus Nicopiensis Suecus, resp. Problemata ex artium liberalium ... in ... Hassiae principum Academia ... Pro consequendis summis in philosophia dignitatibus (Marburgi Cattorum: Excudebat Paulus Egenlophus Typogr. Acad., 1598).

[40] The following is among many disputations held at Central European academic disputations which can found within this collection: Andreas Tamitius, praes. and Elias Fischerus, resp., Disputatio physica de anima ... facultatis philosophicae, in ... Lipsiensi Academia ... in majori majoris Collegii Principium acroaterio ad diem 14. Septemb. (Lipsiae: Excudebat Hieronymus Rauscher, 1622).

[41] For example, refer to the following disputation: Joannes Molitor O.Praem., Theses logicae de divisione et definitione: et physicae ex III. & IIII. Physicorum ... disputabuntur in aula novi Ducalis Gymnasii die 4. Aprilis¨ (Ingolstadii: Ex officina Davidis Sartorij, 1590) [München UB: 4o Philos. 870].

[42] The following works contain sections on the subject–matter of family life (oeconomica): Cornelius Valerius, Ethicae, seu moralis philosophiae brevis et perspicua descriptio (Antverpiae: Ex officina Christophori Plantini, 1572), pp. 29–33 [University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign, Special Collections: uncataloged]; Christophorus Besoldus, Politicorum libri duo (Prostat Francofurti in officina Johan. Alexandri Celii typographi Tubingensis, 1618), pp. 341–382 [Köln UStB: V 2 / 85]; Tobias Schumbergius, Renovata pharus divinae philosophiae practicae, ... idea ethicae, oeconomicae, politicae (Norimbergae: Literis Wolffgang. Eberh.Felsekceri, 1667), pp. 110–162 [Darmstadt LHB: U 822 / 10].

[43] I will be presenting paper on this subject–matter at a symposium in June of 2002; the paper will most probably by published thereafter.

[44] This is central point made in Freedman, "Encyclopedic Philosophical Writings" ("Footnote" 6).

[45] For example, see the following: Theses philosophicae ex logica, physica, & metaphysica, in ... Academia Ingolstadiensi circa finem cursus philosophici die 5. Julij adpublicam disputationem propositae (Ingolstadii: Ex officina typographica Ederiana apud Andream Angermarium, 1602) [Wolfenbüttel HAB: Xb 4893].

[46] Most of the disputations on philosophy and the arts listed within these bibliography are very short in length; the bulk of them were held during the eighteenth century.

[47] Herborn was part of the province of Nassau when the Wiesbaden Provincial Library was organized; some Herborn imprints remained in Herborn and were incorporated into the Bibliothek des theologischen Seminars. (Refer to the work cited in "Footnote" 4 of this article.) Other copies of Herborn imprints can be found in information repositories located in and beyond Central Europe.

[48] From example, refer to the following disputation: Johannes–Henricus Alstedius, praes. and Abrahamus Goluchowski Polanus, resp., Disceptationes ... praecepta et theoremata nobiliora. De universo mixtarum rerumpublicarum genere, publice disquisitioni simul atque iterum subjicit (Herbornae Nassoviorum 1618) [Wiesbaden LB: Gs 8420 (Herborner Dissertationen, J.H.Alsted I (38)]

[49] Both men had strong research interests pertaining to this subject–area; for example, refer to the following: Thomas W. Baldwin, William Shakespeare's Small Latine and Lesse Greeke (Urbana, Illnois: University of Illinois Press, 1944); Harris Francis Fletcher, The Intellectual Development of John Milton, 2 vols. (Urbana, Illinois, University of Illinois Press, 1956–1961).

[50] These considerations wouldhave relatively little bearing on research pertaining to a specific author(s) or to an individual academic institution.

[51] Such is the case with 120–volume collection of theological dissertations at the University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign (see B.4. in Table M) as well as many of the University of Helmstedt materials housed in the Herzog–August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel.

[52] To give one example, while one could maintain that the web–based version of the online catalog of the Herzog AugustBibliothek Wolfenbüttel is in many respects most user–friendly that the older telnet version thereof, as of this writitng one can still produce short–title lists of works on individual subject–matters easier on the telnet version than one the telnet version.

[53] For example, refer to thecurriculum plans and other curriculum information cited in Freedman, "Philosophy Instruction" ("Footnote" 6): 151–163.

[54] The importance of process as a part of product has been recognized by many individuals from the business world and well as by academics in some fields; for example refer to the following serial articles: Edwin E. Bobrow, "Successful New Products ar Product of Process, " Marketing News 28, no. 9 (April 25, 1994): E10; Samuel S. Myers, Performance Reading Comprehension – – Product or Process, " Educational Review 43, no. 3 (1991): 257–272.



Autor (author): Joseph S. Freedman
Dokument erstellt (document created): 2002-08-13
Dokument geändert (last update): 2002-08-19
WWW-Redaktion (conversion into HTML): Manuela Kahle & Stephan Halder
Schlussredaktion (final editing): Heinrich C. Kuhn