Sir Thomas More's Correspondence:
A Survey and A Bibliography
By
Romuald I. Lakowski


University of British Columbia
romualdi@interchange.ubc.ca


"Sir Thomas More's Correspondence: A Survey and Bibliography" first appeared in Disputatio: An International Transdisciplinary Journal of the Late Middle Ages, volume 1, The Late Medieval Epistle, pp. 161--179, edited by Carol Poster and Richard Utz and Published by Northwestern University Press, Evanston, Illinois, in 1996. Copyright ©   1996 by Northwestern University Press. All rights reserved; reprinted by permission of Northwestern University Press.




Introduction

      1. Like most of the major humanists of his day, Sir Thomas More (1477/78--1535), was a prolific letter writer. Unfortunately, since More, unlike his good friend Erasmus (1466/69--1536), did not go to any great lengths to preserve his letters, only a small portion of his correspondence has survived. At present count between about 270--280 published and unpublished letters to and from More have been found. While this is only a small fraction of the surviving correspondence of such figures as Luther and Erasmus, whose extant letters number in the thousands, More's published correspondence amply illustrates the varieties of late medieval and early renaissance epistolary subgenres. These run the gamut from personal letters to official government correspondence (mostly in English), letters to fellow humanists (in Latin), including several major epistolary tracts, verse epistles, prefatory letters (some fictional) to several of More's own works, letters to his own children and their tutors, also written in Latin, to encourage them in their studies, and the 'Prison Letters', written in English, that More exchanged with his eldest daughter Margaret Roper, while he was in the Tower of London in 1534--1535 awaiting execution. Taken collectively, they are extremely invaluable for the light they shed on More's life, including his imprisonment and trial, and they also offer fascinating insights into the age in which More lived.


Editions and Translations

      2. Modern Morean studies properly began in North America with the publication in 1947 of Elizabeth F. Rogers' The Correspondence of Sir Thomas More, hereafter referred to as Rogers (see [8]). This edition contained the Latin and English texts of most of the 219 then known surviving letters sent to and from More, though the texts of the fifty-four surviving letters exchanged between Erasmus and Thomas More were not included, but only calendared with respect to P.S. Allen's magisterial edition of Erasmus' Opus epistolarum, hereafter Allen (see [1]). (Most of the More-Erasmus correspondence has since been translated in The Complete Works of Erasmus, hereafter CWE, see [7]).
      3. Sixty-six, forty-five Latin and twenty one English (in modern spelling), of the letters sent by More (including translations of twelve of More's letters to Erasmus), again edited and translated by E. F. Rogers, were published in 1961 by Yale UP as St. Thomas More: Selected Letters (hereafter SL, see [9]). Rogers included one new English letter by More (Rogers 192*). This was published as the first step in preparing a critical edition of More's Correspondence for The Yale Edition of the Complete Works of St. Thomas More (1963--Present, hereafter CW). Since then the texts of seven major epistolary tracts (six in Latin and one in English) have been published as part of the Yale edition (see [3], [4] and [5]). Regrettably, the Yale editors later abandoned their original plan to publish a complete critical edition of More's correspondence.
      4. Since Rogers' two editions were published, more letters have turned up. Twenty-three more letters mostly addressed to More have since been published by H. S. Herbrüggen in Sir Thomas More: Neue Briefe (1966), hereafter Herbrüggen, and in Moreana (see [2], [27], [28], [29]). Herbrüggen also noted in 1983 the existence of about thirty more unpublished letters (see [29], p.35). More recently seven previously unknown autograph letters sent by More to Francis Cranevelt turned up in an auction in 1991, and have been edited and published in the journal Moreana (see [9], [12], [56], [58]). This brings the current total of published and unpublished letters to about 280 (approximately two-thirds in Latin and one-third in English).
      5. The letters calendared and published by Rogers and Herbrüggen and others have come from a variety of sources. Erasmus was responsible for preserving the letters exchanged by him and More as well as several others written by More in defence of Erasmus. Some of these letters were even published by Erasmus himself during his own (and More's) lifetime. More were preserved in the letter collections of other humanists such as Guillaume Budé and Francis Cranevelt. Some thirty odd letters, mostly in very brief excerpts, were published in Thomas Stapleton's Latin biography of More, the Tres Thomae (1588). Stapleton had access to a collection of More's Latin correspondence in the possession of Dorothy Coly, the former maid of Margaret Roper, More's eldest daughter, and the wife of John Harris, More's former secretary. Regrettably Stapleton did not publish the entire letters. More's prison letters to Margaret Roper and to other family members and friends written in 1534--1535, while More was awaiting execution, were published as part of the folio edition of More's English Works (1557), edited by More's nephew William Rastell. Many other letters have been preserved among the State Papers of Henry VIII and in continental archives. Given the breadth of More's correspondence and the heterogeneous nature of the sources for the surviving correspondence, it is not surpising that new letters still occasionally turn up.


1) Letters To and From Fellow Humanists, including Erasmus
      6. More exchanged many letters with other humanists, such as Desiderius Erasmus (fifty-four survive), the great French humanist Guillaume Budé (ten letters, see [13], [69], [86]), and the Belgian humanist Francis Cranevelt (thirteen letters, see [9], [12], [56], [58]). More's correspondence with his fellow humanists runs the whole range from short "thank you" notes, to detailed critiques of current affairs, touching on sensitive issues affecting relationships with fellow humanists and particularly in Erasmus's case, also the beginnings of the Protestant Reformation. These letters show that More was very much in contact with developments in the continental Northern Renaissance (1450--1540), and very knowledgeable about current affairs throughout Europe. In them he also strongly cultivated the humanist 'art of friendship'.
      7. Most of More's continental correspondents were friends of Erasmus, whom More had first met in 1499, during Erasmus' first visit to England, and with whom More developed a deep and close friendship. More's correspondence with Erasmus, shows very clearly how important letter writing was for the spread of humanist ideas. More sustained a lifelong friendship with Erasmus via their correspondence. Erasmus actually visited and lived in England in 1499, 1505--1506, 1509--1514, and again briefly in 1517. More and Erasmus met physically in the flesh for the last time at Calais, at the "Field of the Cloth of Gold", the famous meeting, really an elaborate international pageant, between the three monarchs Henry VIII, Francis I, and the Hapsburg Emperor Charles V, in 1520. After that they continued to write to each other until almost the end. (Erasmus' last letter to More was written in 1533.) Much has been written about the friendship between More and Erasmus and the correspondence they exchanged (see especially [15], [16], [46], [52], [80], [93], [94]).
      8. A number of Erasmus's letters (Allen #191, #999, #1233, #2750, etc) to other humanists also shed important light on More's life. The Letter to Ulrich Von Hutten (Allen, #999) contains in epistolary form a brief encomiastic biography (three to four pages) of Thomas More as the model Erasmian humanist (see [40], [41], [43], [44], [79]). Also one of Erasmus's most important letters to Guillaume Budé (Allen #1233) contains a detailed account of More's education of his daughters. Many other such letters make passing reference to More, including mention of now lost letters to and from More.
      9. More's friendship with Guillaume Budé, the great French legal humanist, antiquarian and counsellor of Francis I, began when Budé contributed a major prefatory epistle to the Basle, 1518 (3rd) edition of Utopia at the request of Erasmus, with whom Budé had already been carrying on an extensive correspondence in both Latin and Greek. (Budé was one of the foremost Greek scholars of the day.) More was so grateful for Budé's letter that he sent him a pair of hunting dogs as a present. Their correspondence extended over several years, though More only met Budé once in person at the "Field of the Cloth of Gold" in 1520. More was also introduced about this time by Erasmus in person to the Belgian humanist Francis Cranevelt, with whom he developed a warm friendship and with whom he corresponded over a period of several years.


2) The Epistolary Tracts
      10. More wrote seven major epistolary tracts or letter-essays, which have been edited by Yale University Press as part of The Complete Works of St. Thomas More. (Vols. 3/2 App.C, 7 and 15) (see [3], [4], [5]).{1} These major letters, while maintaining the epistolary form throughout, are clearly "major works", some of which were clearly intended for circulation in manuscript form or were meant to be printed. The longest of these The Letter to Dorp at 75,000 words is almost as long as Utopia. Four of these letters, the Letter to Dorp, Letter to Lee, Letter to Oxford and Letter to a Monk (see [3]: CW 15 and Rogers #15, #60, #75, #83: 1515--1520), were written in defence of Erasmus and of the humanist agenda.
      11. The earliest of these, The Letter to Dorp, was written in 1515 while More was on embassy to the Low Countries, about the same time he was composing Utopia. A minor Belgian humanist turned theologian, Martin Dorp, had attacked Erasmus' treatment of theologians in the Encomium Moriae or Praise of Folly (1511), a work dedicated to More himself. Erasmus answered Dorp in a long letter (Allen #337), to which Dorp wrote a long reply (Allen #347). More wrote his even longer Letter to Dorp (Rogers #15) in defence of Erasmus, which had the decisive effect of winning Dorp back to the Erasmian camp. These letters circulated in manuscript form, and Erasmus' Letter to Dorp (Allen #337) was often included in later editions of the Praise of Folly. More's Letter to Dorp also contains important reflections on the relationships between rhetoric, dialectic and grammar, which seem to have directly influenced the early attempt of Juan Luis Vives in his In Pseudodialecticos (1520) to reform the teaching of dialectic (see [3], [26], [48], [50], [60], [70], [87]).
      12. The Letter to Oxford (1518) contains a spirited defence of Greek Studies which were then being introduced against considerable opposition into Oxford (see [3], [36], [55]). The other two letters contain very vigorous defences of Erasmus' Praise of Folly (1511) and his edition of the Greek New Testament. The letters to Lee (a future Archbishop of York) and to the Carthusian Monk John Batmansen, are mainly concerned with Erasmus' New Testament, and contain an important defence of humanistic biblical studies in the immediate pre-Reformation period (see [23], [24], [62], [77], [92]). (Both letters were published by Erasmus in Epistolae Aliquot Eruditorum (1520)). More was later to be highly critical of Tyndale's English translation of New Testament (1526) (though he did give cautious support to the project for an English Bishops' Bible) but he never abandoned his defence of Erasmus' New Testament.
      13. If the The Letter to Dorp is in a sense More's ars rhetorica, then the The Letter to Brixius (see [4], CW 3/2, App.C and Rogers #86: 1520) is More's ars poetica. In 1518 More got involved in a major literary quarrel with the French humanist Germain de Brie (Brixius), who had criticised More's Latin Epigrams, published that year by Johann Froben in Basle. More answered Brixius in a long letter, which has much to say about poetics and literary criticism, and which was actually printed in 1520 by Pynson. The quarrel was brought to an end by the intervention of Erasmus who was friends with both men and who persuaded More to make peace with Brixius. More promply tried to suppress his own letter and bought up all the remaining unsold copies (see [4], [63]).
      14. The two remaining epistolary tracts deal with reformation issues (see [5], [37], [51], [81], [83]). In 1525, the German Reformer Johann Bugenhagen, one of Luther's right hand men, sent a printed polemical epistle to England, the Epistola ad Anglos, defending Lutheran doctrines. This circulated quite widely, and More, who had already written a polemical work against Luther, the Responsio ad Lutherum, in 1523, felt compelled to reply to it in The Letter to Bugenhagen (1526, published 1568). More also wrote a long epistle, the The Letter to Frith (1532), in English to the minor English reformer John Frith. These works, though written in epistolary form, share many common features with More's other polemical works, published in Volumes 5--11 of More's Complete Works.


3) Prefatory Letters
      15. Many of More's published works contain prefatory letters, written either by him or by others on his behalf. All of More's published works up to about 1520, contain dedicatory epistles. The most elaborate of these are to be found in the Utopia and the Responsio ad Lutherum. More contributed his own prefaces to his Latin Translations of Lucian (1506), his English translation of The Life of Pico (1510) and to the presentation manuscript of his Latin Coronation Poems (1509) for Henry VIII. He also contributed a Prefatory Letter to the Utopia (Antwerp, 1516; 2nd ed. Paris, 1517; 3rd ed. Basle, 1518), dedicated to Pieter Gilles, a longtime friend of Erasmus, whom More had met and made friends with while on embassy to the Low Countries in 1515, and who appears as a minor figure in Book I of Utopia, (see [65]). Gilles was responsible for arranging for the publication of the first edition of Utopia in Antwerp, and he and Erasmus recruited several prefatory letters (including the one by Budé) which were published with the first three editions of Utopia (See CW 4, pp. 2--45, 248--53). More also contributed a second Letter to Gilles to the Paris, 1517 edition of Utopia as a sort of epilogue (see [89]).{2} In 1518 the first edition of More's Latin Epigrams (including the earlier Coronation Poems) was also published in Basle with a prefatory letter by Beatus Rhenanus, a close friend of Erasmus and later editor of Erasmus' works, to the noted German humanist Willibald Pirckheimer, another friend of Erasmus.
      16. The prefatory letters contributed to the Utopia (almost twenty percent of the Yale edition) blurred the boundary between fact and fiction, and served as a sort of epistolary "frame", by claiming that Utopia was a real place and the Raphael Hythloday, the fictional narrator of Book II, was a real person. In the next two major works that More wrote, the Responsio ad Lutherum (1523) and the Dialogue Concerning Heresies (1529), More went a stage further and wrote totally fictional prefatory letters with imaginary dedicatees (and in the case of the Responsio imaginary senders as well). However, the Dialogue also contained an untitled preface. The remainder of More's polemical works (1528--1533), either contain elaborate prefaces or just simple dedications with titles of the form: "Syr Thomas More to the Chrysten reader." More's final Tower Works (1534--1535), written in prison, in turn are almost wholly lacking prefaces; however one cannot make too much of this, since these were not published in More's own lifetime. It does, nonetheless, suggest an increasing dissatisfaction and gradual turning away on More's part from the genre of the prefatory epistle and towards the modern "Preface" as we know it.


4) Official Correspondence and Personal Letters to his Family
      17. Since More was a practising lawyer and politician for most of his adult life, It is not surprising that a significant number of the surviving letters to and from More involve official business. More served as part of several embassies to the Continent, to the Low Countries and France, in 1515 (the "Utopian Embassy"), 1517, 1520, 1521, and 1529. Rogers and Herbrüggen have edited about thirty letters to and from the commissioners of these embassies. They are mainly of historical interest and reveal nothing personal about More. Another twenty-five letters exchanged by More and Wolsey during the period 1519--1528, illustrate the close and sometimes uneasy relationship between these two men at this period. (More served among other thing as one of Henry VIII's secretaries, travelling around with the Royal Court and writing to Wolsey in London to keep him informed of the King's latest wishes.) At least another dozen letters deal either with royal commissions or legal business. These letters are mainly grist for the mill for Tudor historians and are not very interesting in and of themselves for biographers of More, but we should not forget that the great mass of surviving correspondence from the late medieval and early renaissance periods deals mainly with political, legal, and ecclesiastical business.
      18. More found time, despite the hectic pace of life at Henry VIII's Court, to write frequently to his children in Latin. As a way of improving their Latin, he encouraged his children to write back to him daily while he was at court. Unfortunately, none of their letters have survived, but Thomas Stapleton in his Latin biography of More preserved some of More's replies. About nine letters to More's children, especially his eldest daughter Margaret, and their tutors survive. One of these letters is in the form of a long Latin verse epistle in elegaic couplets (Rogers #76). (More also included a long epigram in a letter to Erasmus, Allen #684, thanking him for the gift of a diptych of portraits of Erasmus and Peter Giles.) Erasmus also corresponded with More's eldest daughter Margaret Roper, and dedicated two of his minor works, one to Margaret and the other to More's son, John. Only one letter to More's wife survives (Rogers #174), though the tone is affectionate. (see [32], [35], [45])


5) Prison Letters
      19. After More's imprisonment in 1534, he was allowed to correspond with his eldest daughter Margaret Roper (who was also allowed to visit him in prison). There are ten surviving letters by More and four by his daughter, together with several other related letters from the time of More's imprisonment and just prior, almost all (unlike his earlier correspondence) in English (Rogers #194--195, #197--218). They are among the most intensely personal and moving works that More ever wrote. And yet even here, More's legal and humanistic training never deserted him. Several of the letters contain very sophisticated use of direct and indirect speech in reporting the various interrogations that More underwent. Most of these letters were published by More's nephew William Rastell in the folio edition of More's English Works (1557). They also were extensively exploited by More's biographers, starting with More's son-in-law, William Roper's Life of More (c1556). These letters have often been anthologised and studied (see [17], [18], [19], [20], [22], [25], [30], [47], [49], [53], [66], [68], [72], [74], [76], [84], [88], [90]).
      20. In addition, one of Margaret Roper's letters addressed to her step-sister Alice Alington (Rogers #206), is in the form of a literary dialogue (about the length of Plato's Crito to which it has been compared) between Margaret and her father (see [54], [59], [64], [67], [72], [75], [84], [[95]). There are good reasons for believing it was jointly composed by both Margaret Roper and Thomas More. While the prison letters have been a gold mine for biographers of More, apart from the Letter to Alice Alington, hardly anyone has commented on the literary sophistication (the "artful artlessness") of More's final correspondence. It is clear, as Louis L. Martz points out (see [72]) that as intensely personal as these letters are, they were written with great skill and artfulness, with a keen awareness of potential multiple audiences: More wrote not only for the benefit of his family, but also for his captors who presumably who would have read at least some of his correspondence with Margaret looking for ways to entrap him (as happened with More's fellow martyr John Fisher), and finally to leave a record for and vindicate himself to posterity. Thanks to More's own letters we know more about More's trial and the preliminary interrogations leading up to it, than we do for any other 16th century English treason trial.
      21. For the final stages of More's trial and his execution, we have to turn to another source, also a letter. While it would have been very dangerous for anyone to write an account of More's trial in England, at least while Henry VIII was alive, Henry VIII had no control over what happened on the Continent. Within two weeks of More's death (6 July 1535), an eye-witness account of More's final trial and execution written in French (the "Paris New Letter") was circulating in Paris, presumeably written by a member of the French embassy to England. A Latin translation (once attributed to Erasmus) was quickly made and circulated widely on the Continent, where the news was greeted with shock, horror and outrage on the part of the international humanist community (see [39], [42]). The account of the "Paris News Letter", translated in English, together with the "Prison Letters" and some personal details from Roper's Life, provided the basis the account of More's execution in Nicholas Harpfield's Life of More (c.1557) and all later biographies.

University of British Columbia



NOTES

      1. This is the only part of More's Correspondence to be formally edited by Yale as part of The Complete Works of St. Thomas More. The Selected Letters are part of the series The Selected Works of St. Thomas More published for a more popular audience.
      2. For bibliography on the Prefatory Letters to the Utopia, see the section on "Prefatory Letters and Parerga" in my "A Bibliography of Thomas More's Utopia" in Early Modern Literary Studies 1.2 (1995): 6.1--10. (<URL: http://purl.oclc.org/emls/01-2/lakoutop.html>).





Bibliography of Sir Thomas More's Correspondence
(1500--1535)

Editions:
      1. Allen, P. S., H. M. Allen and H. W. Garrod. Opus epistolarum Des. Erasmi Roterodami. 11 vols. and index. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1906--47, 58. [Cited as "Allen."]
      2. Herbrüggen, H. S., ed. Sir Thomas More: Neue Briefe. Mit einer Einführung in die epistolographische Tradition. Neue Beiträge zur englischen Philologie 5. Münster: Verlag Aschendorff, 1966. [Rev.: A. Prévost, Moreana 11 (1966): 55--58; E. Sobel, Renaissance Quarterly 20 (1967): 488--90; W. Weiss (Germ.), Anglia 85 (1967): 100--01; R. W. Zandvoort, English Studies 47 (1966): 220. Cited as "Herbrüggen." Contains 19 letters not included in Rogers' edition.]
      3. Kinney, D., ed. In Defence of Humanism: Letter to Martin Dorp, Letter to the University of Oxford, Letter to Edward Lee, Letter to a Monk, with a new text and Translation of Historia Richardi Tertii. Vol. 15 of The Yale Edition of the Complete Works of St. Thomas More. New Haven: Yale UP, 1986. xv--cxxxii, 1--311, 496--603. [Rev.: J. Chomarat, Moreana 94 (1987): 65--70; G. R. Elton, English Historical Review 105 (1990): 175; A. J. Geritz, English Literary Renaissance 22 (1992): 120; A. M. O'Donnell, Catholic Historical Review 74 (1987): 586--87; A. L. Prescott, Renaissance Quarterly 41 (1988): 515--17; J. S. Scott, Renaissance and Reformation 16:1 (1992): 86--87; J. N. Wall, Review of English Studies ns 40 (1989): 117--19. Cited as CW 15 (earlier edition in Rogers #15, #60, #75, and #83). Contains texts and translations of four major epistolary tracts in defence of Erasmus: the Letters to Dorp, Lee, Batmanson, and Oxford.]
      4. Kinney, D., ed. "Appendix C: More's Letter to Brixius." Latin Poems. Vol. 3, Part II of The Yale Edition of the Complete Works of St. Thomas More. Ed. C. H. Miller et al. New Haven: Yale UP, 1984. 549--694. [Cited as CW 3/2, App. C (earlier edition in Rogers #86). Text and translation of More's Ars poetica, the 'Letter to Brixius.']
      5. Manley, F., G. Marc'hadour, R. C. Marius, and C. H. Miller, eds. Letter to Bugenhagen, Supplication of Souls, Letter Against Frith. Vol. 7 of The Yale Edition of the Complete Works of St. Thomas More. New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. xvii--lxiv, cxviii--clxx, 1--105, 229--58. [Rev.: W. M. Gordon, Moreana 111/112 (1992): 169--74; A. Rabil, Jr., Church History 61 (1992): 407--08; A. M. Young, Sixteenth Century Journal 23 (1992): 630--32. Cited as CW 7 (earlier edition in Rogers #143, and #190). Text of the English 'Letter to Frith' and Latin text and translation of the 'Letter to Bugenhagen'.]
      6. Miller, C. H., ed. "Thomas More's Letters to Frans van Cranevelt, Including Seven Recently Discovered Autographs: Latin Text, English Translation, and Facsimiles of the Originals." Moreana 117 (1994): 3--66 + 118/119 (1994): 286. [Latin text and English translations of 13 letters (together with eleven facsimiles) by More to Cranevelt, including seven new letters discovered in 1989. See also R. Galibois, "Lettres de Thomas More à Frans van Cranevelt" ([13]), and H. S. Herbrüggen, "Seven New Letters From Thomas More" ([58]).]
      7. Mynors, R. A. B., et al. The Correspondence of Erasmus. Collected Works of Erasmus, Vols. 1--11. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1974--. [Cited as CWE. English translations of Erasmus's correspondence to 1523, including most of the More-Erasmus correspondence.]
      8. Rogers, E. F., ed. The Correspondence of Sir Thomas More. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1947. [Rev.: D. C. Allen, MLN 63 (1948): 291; J. M. Berdan, Saturday Review of Literature, 9 Aug. 1947 (rpt. Moreana 15/16 (1967): 224); A. Gewirth, Ethics 58 (1948): 230; P. E. Hallett, Modern Language Review 43 (1948): 255--57; P. O. Kristeller, Journal of Philosophy 46 (1949): 51--52; A. W. Reed, Review of English Studies 25 (1949): 354--56; M. Padberg Sullivan ("The Now and Future Gold Mine"), Moreana 15/16 (1967): 204--08. Cited as "Rogers." Gives the Latin or English texts of all of More's then known surviving correspondence (219 letters), except those exchanged by More and Erasmus, which are included in P. S. Allen's edition of Erasmus' Opus epistolorum ([1]). Rogers' edition has been more recently supplemented by Herbrüggen's Sir Thomas More: Neue Briefe (1966) ([2]). Seven of More's longer letters, really tracts, have been also edited for the Yale Edition in CW 3/2, App. C, CW 7, and CW 15 ([3], [4], [5]).]
      9. Rogers, E. F., ed. St. Thomas More: Selected Letters. Trans. M. Haworth et al. Selected Works of St. Thomas More. New Haven: Yale UP, 1961. [Rev.: H. W. Donner, Modern Language Review 58 (1963): 400--01; P. A. Duhamel, Boston Pilot 6 Jan. 1962 (rpt. in Moreana 15/16 (1967): 114); G. R. Elton, Notes and Queries ns 10 (1963): 195. Cited as "Selected Letters" or SL. Contains 66 letters, including 45 translations of Latin Correspondence, and 21 modern spelling versions of More's English letters.]


Translations:
      10. Blarer, B. von, trans. Die Briefe des Sir Thomas More. Köln: Benziger, 1948. [German translation.]
      11. Castelli, A., trans. Venti Lettere. Rome: Editrice Studium, 1966. [Rev.: G. Marc'hadour, Moreana 13 (1967): 101--04. Italian translation of twenty letters, including eight 'Prison Letters.']
      12. Galibois, R., and G. Marc'hadour, trans. "Lettres de Thomas More à Frans van Cranevelt." Moreana 117 (1994): 67--84 + 118/119 (1994): 286. [French translation---for Latin text, see C. H. Miller, "Thomas More's Letters to Frans van Cranevelt" ([6]).]
      13. Garanderie, M.-M. de la, trans. "La correspondance de Guillaume Budé et Thomas More." Moreana 19/20 (1968): 41--68. French translation of Latin correspondence (10 letters) between Budé and More: Rogers #65--66, #68, #80, #96--97, #102, #154, #156, and Budé's Prefatory Letter to the 1517 Utopia.]
      14. Fortunato, B., trans. Tommaso Moro: Lettere. Brescia: Morcelliana, 1987. [Rev.: M.-P. Bataille, Moreana 104 (1990): 87--90. Italian translation of 71 of More's letters, including 17 'Prison Letters' (45--71).]
      15. Herbrüggen, H. S., trans. Briefe der Freundschaft mit Erasmus. Munich: Kösel, 1985. [Rev.: G. Marc'hadour, Moreana 94 (1987): 61--64. German Translation of correspondence between More and Erasmus.]
      16. Marc'hadour, G., and R. Galibois, trans. Érasme et Thomas More: Correspondance. Sherbrooke: Centre d'Études de la Renaissance, 1985. [Rev.: M. Lebel, Moreana 90 (1986): 73--75; M. M. Phillips, Moreana 89 (1986): 57--58; A. L. Prescott, Erasmus of Rotterdam Society Yearbook 6 (1986): 156--58. French translation of correspondence between More and Erasmus.]
      17. Silva, Á., trans. Santo Tomás More: Un hombre solo. Cartas desde la Torre. 1534--1535. Madrid: Ediciones Rialp, 1988. [Rev.: L. J. Hutton, Moreana 101/102 (1990): 194. Spanish translation of More's prison letters and prayers.]


Selections and Individual Letters:
      18. Allen, P. S., and H. M. Allen, eds. "Letters." Sir Thomas More: Selections from His English Works and from the Lives by Erasmus and Roper. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1924. 1-9, 154--70. [Reprints eight letters, including some of the 'Prison Letters,' and Erasmus's 'Letter to Ulrich von Hutten.']
      19. Campbell, M., ed. "Letters of More and his Daughter Margaret," and "Letter of Erasmus to Von Hutton." The Utopia of Sir Thomas More. Toronto and New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1947. 185--204, 283--312. [Reprints seven of the 'Prison Letters' with modernized spelling, and Erasmus' 'Letter to Ulrich von Hutten'.]
      20. Campbell, W. E., ed. The Last Letters of Blessed Thomas More. London: Manresa Press; St. Louis: Herder, 1924.
      21. Clements, R. J., and L. Levant, eds. Renaissance Letters: Revelations of a World Reborn. New York: New York UP, 1977. 2, 25--31, 142, 218--21, 395, 427--29. [An anthology of Renaissance letters; includes five of More's letters.]
      22. Foord, B., ed. Conscience Decides: Letters and Prayers from Prison Written by Sir Thomas More. Intro. G. Marc'hadour. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1971. [Rev.: P. Caraman, Moreana 35 (1972): 21--24; F. G. Murray, Clergy Review 57 (1972): 406.]
      23. Gibaud, H., ed. "Thomas More: Réponse à un moine anti-érasmien." M. A. Diss. Centre d'Études Supérieures de la Renaissance, Université de Tours, 1967. [Edition of Latin text and French translation.]
      24. Gibaud, H., and G. Marc'hadour, trans. "Réponse de Thomas More à un moine anti-érasmien." Moreana 27/28 (1970): 31--83. [Preface (pp. 31--38) and French translation (pp. 39--83).]
      25. Greene, J. J., and J. P. Dolan, eds. The Essential Thomas More. New York: Mentor, 1967. 99--109, 137--47, 242--81, 286--94. [Excerpts from a letter of More to Erasmus (Allen #388, Rogers #16), Erasmus' letter to Ulrich von Hutten, The Letter to Oxford, and The Letter to Dorp, and of several of the 'Prison Letters'.]
      26. Guerlac, R., ed. "An Appendix of Related Passages by Thomas More." Juan Luis Vives Against the Pseudodialecticians: A Humanist Attack on Medieval Logic, by Juan Vives. Texts and Studies in the History of Logic and Philosophy 18. Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1978. 157--95. [Rev.: D. Kinney, Moreana 69 (1981): 67--71. Includes a letter by More to Erasmus on Vives (Allen #1106, Rogers #93) and generous excerpts from More's Letter to Dorp.]
      27. Herbrüggen, H. S. "A Letter of Dr. Johann Eck to Thomas More." Moreana 8 (1965): 51--58. [Herbrüggen #142A.]
      28. Herbrüggen, H. S. "Ein unbekannter Brief an St. Thomas More." Moreana 15/16 (1967): 241--46. [Herbrüggen #184B.]
      29. Herbrüggen, H. S. "Three Additions to More's Correspondence." Moreana 79/80 (1983): 35--42.
      30. "Letters of Sir Thomas More to and From Margaret More." The Mirrour of Vertue in Worldly Greatnes or the Life of Sir Thomas More Knight. By William Roper. London: Alexander Moring (The De La More Press), 1903. 105--77. [Reprints nine of the 'Prison Letters,' including Margaret Roper's "Letter to Alice Alington" (Rogers #206).]
      31. Marc'hadour, G., trans. "Lettre de Thomas More à Dorp." Saint Thomas More: Lettre à Dorp---La Supplication des Ames. Namur: Le Soleil Levant, 1962. 37--129. [Rev.: P. Mesnard, Moreana 1 (1963): 30--39. French Translation of the 'Letter to Dorp' (Rogers #15).]
      32. Marc'hadour, G. "Lettre de Thomas More à sa femme, 3 Septembre 1529." Moreana 113 (1993): 17--26. [English text of Rogers #174 (SL #42), together with French and Latin (by Thomas Stapleton) translations and notes.]
      33. Marc'hadour, G. "Thomas Morus: Epistola ad Erasmum (xviiio decembris 1526)." Moreana 111/112 (1992): 103--10. [Facsimile reproduction of More's 1526 autograph letter to Erasmus (Allen #1170, Rogers #148, SL #38) now in Wroclaw, Poland.]
      34. Meulon, H. "Lettre de More à John Colet." Moreana 22 (1969): 13--16. [French Translation of Rogers #3.]
      35. Robineau, M.-C., et al., eds. "Correspondance entre Érasme et Margaret Roper." Moreana 12 (1966): 29--46, 121. [Allen #1404, #2212, #2233 (Rogers #130, #176, #179) and More's Letter to Margaret, Rogers #108 (SL #33).]
      36. Scott-Craig, T. S. K., trans. "Thomas More's 1518 Letter to the University of Oxford." Renaissance News 1 (1948): 17--24. Rpt. in The Thought and Culture of the English Renaissance: An Anthology of Tudor Prose, 1481--1555. Ed. E. M. Nugent. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1956. 64--72. Rpt. in St. Thomas More: Selected Letters. Ed. E. F. Rogers. Trans. M. Haworth et al. Selected Works of St. Thomas More. New Haven: Yale UP, 1961. 95--103. [Rogers #60, SL 19. Translation superceded by CW 15 ([3]).]
      37. Sinclair, M. A., ed. "Saint Thomas More's Letter to Bugenhagen, Translated and Annotated, With a Study of His Thought, Method and Style as a Religious Controversialist." Diss., U of Loyola, 1957. [Rogers #143 and CW 7.]


Letters about More, including Erasmus' Letter to Ulrich von Hutten (Allan #999):
      38. Gairdner, J., ed. "A Letter Concerning Bishop Fisher and Sir Thomas More." English Historical Review 7 (1892): 712--15. Rpt. with modernized spelling as "John Bouge: Letter to Katheryn Manne." The Thought and Culture of the English Renaissance: An Anthology of Tudor Prose, 1481--1555. Ed. E. M. Nugent. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1956. 547--49. [John Bouge's "Letter to Katheryn Manne."]
      39. Hitchcock, E. V., ed. "Appendix II: The Paris News Letter." in The life and death of Sr Thomas Moore, knight, sometymes Lord high Chancellor of England. By Nicholas Harpsfield. Early English Texts Society 186. London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford UP, 1932. 255--66. English trans. in The Essential Thomas More. Ed. J. J. Greene and J. P. Dolan. New York: Mentor, 1967. 294--98. [A contemporary French account of More's execution.]
      40. Marc'hadour, G., trans. "Thomas More vu par Érasme." Saint Thomas More: Lettre à Dorp---La Supplication des Ames. Namur: Le Soleil Levant, 1962. 3--35. [Rev.: P. Mesnard, Moreana 1 (1963): 30--39. French translation of Allen #999.]
      41. Marc'hadour, G., ed. Thomas More vu par Érasme. Angers: Éditions Moreana, 1969. [Latin text and French translation of Allen #999, together with 150 page commentary.]
      42. (Montanus, Philip). "Expositio Fidelis." Opus epistolarum Des. Erasmi Roterodami. Ed. P. S. Allen. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1947. Vol. 11: 368--78. [Includes a Latin translation of the Paris News Letter, formerly attributed to Erasmus.]
      43. Nichols, F. M., trans. "Erasmus to Ulrich von Hutten." Epistles of Erasmus. 3 vols. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1901--1918. Rpt. New York: Russell and Russell, 1962. 3: 387--99. Rpt. in Utopia: A New Translation, Backgrounds, Criticism. Ed. R. M. Adams. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1975. 127--33. Rpt. 2nd rev. ed. 1992. 125--33.
      44. Olin, J., ed. Thomas More, 7 February 1477---6 July 1535: A Portrait in Words by his Friend Erasmus. On the Occasion of the Conference Marking the Quincentennial of the Birth of St. Thomas More, Kt. Held at the University on February 10th and 11th.... New York: Fordham UP, 1977. 14 pages + 1 plate. [Adapted from the translation of F. M. Nichols.]


Studies of More's Letters:
      45. Billingsley, D. B. "Readers and the Dangers of Reading in More's Works." Moreana 115/116 (1993): 5--18. [Summ.: p. 181. On More's responses to changes in the nature of his audiences, as illustrated by contrasting his letters to his children (5--9), and his polemical works.]
      46. Blom, N. van der. "La démission de More selon Érasme (d'après Allen X, lettres 2735, 2750 et 2780)." Moreana 89 (1986): 29--34. With reactions by J. Chomarat and R. Galibois 34--36.
      47. Bruce, J. "Observations upon Certain Inaccuracies in the Published Letters of Sir Thomas More." Archaeologia 30 (1844): 149--59. [On the changes that William Rastell made to the 'Prison Letters' in the 1557 Folio edition of More's English Works.]
      48. Camporeale, S. I. "Da Lorenzo Valla a Tommaso Moro: lo statuto umanistico della teologia." Memorie domenicane ns 4 (1973): 9--102. Also published separately. [Rev.: C. Trinkaus, Moreana 50 (1976): 91--95. Study of More's Letter to Dorp (Rogers #15 and CW 15).]
      49. Castelli, A. "I due '19 Maggio.'" Moreana 15/16 (1967): 347--52. [Rogers #199.]
      50. Cooper, M. S. "More and the Letter to Martin Dorp." Moreana 6 (1965): 37--44. [Rogers #15 and CW 15.]
      51. Crawford, C. W. "Thomas Stapleton and More's Letter to Bugenhagen." Moreana 19/20 (1968): 101--07 + 26 (1970): 5--16.
      52. Delcourt, M. "L'Amitié d'Érasme et de More entre 1520 et 1535." Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé no. 50 (1936): 7--29. Revised version as "Érasme et Thomas More: Histoire d'une amitié." Érasme. Brussels: Éditions Labor, 1986. 63--91.
      53. Derrett, J. D. M. "Two Dicta of More's and a Correction." Moreana 8 (1965): 67--72. [On Rogers #200, #202, and #208.]
      54. Gordon, W. M. "Tragic Perspective in Thomas More's Dialogue with Margaret in the Tower." Cithara 17:2 (1978): 3--12. [On Margaret Roper's "Letter to Alice Alington."]
      55. Gueguen, J. A. "Why is There No University in Utopia?" Moreana 77 (1983): 31--34. [Gueguen cites More's Letter to Oxford (1518) to illustrate scholastic opposition in the universities to the new humanist learning (including Greek)---the only kind of learning favoured in Utopia.]
      56. Herbrüggen, H. S. "A Hundred New Humanist Letters: More, Erasmus, Vives, Cranevelt, Geldenhouwer and Other Dutch Humanists." Bibliothèque d'Humanisme et Renaissance 52 (1990): 65--76. [On the discovery of 116 new letters addressed to Francis Cranevelt, including seven autograph letters from Thomas More (pp. 70--75).]
      57. Herbrüggen, H. S. "Artes dictandi und erasmische Theorie in More's lateinischen Briefen." Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Guelpherbytani. Ed. S. P. Revard, F. Rädle and M. A. Di Cesare. Binghamton, NY: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies 53, 1988. 503--12.
      58. Herbrüggen, H. S. "Seven New Letters from Thomas More." Moreana 103/104 (1990): 49--66. [Summ.: G. Marc'hadour, p. 66. On the seven new autograph letters from More to Francis Cranevelt.]
      59. Kaufman, P. I. "Absolute Margaret: Margaret More Roper and 'Well Learned' Men." Sixteenth Century Journal 20 (1989): 443--56. [A rather disorganized and confused 'feminist' reading of Margaret Roper's "Letter to Alice Alington."]
      60. Kinney, D. "More's Letter to Dorp: Remapping the Trivium." Renaissance Quarterly 34 (1981): 179--210. [Summ.: A. J. Geritz, English Literary Renaissance 22 (1992): 120. Rev.: H. Gibaud, Moreana 75/76 (1982): 177--78. Rogers #15 and CW 15.]
      61. Klawiter, R. "Thomas More, Erasmus and Ulrich von Hutten: Some Reflections." Moreana 67/68 [Thomas More Gazette 2] (1980): 17--30.
      62. Knowles, D. "Appendix I: Sir Thomas More's Letter 'To a Monk.'" The Religious Orders in England. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1959. Rpt. with corrections 1971. III: 469. [Dom David Knowles identifies the recipient of More's Letter to a Monk (Rogers #83) as John Batmanson the Carthusian (d. 1531).]
      63. Lavoie, G. "La fin de la querelle entre Germain de Brie et Thomas More." Moreana 50 (1976): 39--44. [Rogers #86 and CW 3/2, App. C, Allen #1087, etc.]
      64. McCutcheon, E. "Life and Letters: Editing the Writing of Margaret Roper." New Ways of Looking at Old Texts: Papers of the Renaissance English Text Society. Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies 107. Binghamton, NY: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies in Conjunction with Renaissance English Text Society, 1993. 111--17.
      65. McCutcheon, E. My Dear Peter: The Ars Poetica and Hermeneutics for More's Utopia. Angers: Éditions Moreana, 1983. [Rev.: J. Gury, Moreana 77 (1983): 49--51; A. F. Kinney, Moreana 78 (1983): 25--28 and Renaissance Quarterly 40 (1987): 121--23. A 100 page monograph study of More's 'Prefatory Letter to Peter Giles' in the Utopia.]
      66. McCutcheon, E. "'The Apple of my Eye': Thomas More to Antonio Bonvisi---A Reading and a Translation." Moreana 71/72 (1981): 37--56. [Translation and interpretation of More's last Latin letter, Rogers #217.]
      67. McCutcheon, E. "The Learned Woman in Tudor England: Margaret More Roper." Women Writers of the Renaissance and Reformation. Ed. K. M. Wilson. Athens, GA: U of Georgia P, 1987. 449--80. [A sensitive and nuanced treatment of Margaret Roper, and of her relationship with her illustrious father. Includes a bibliography (477--80), and excerpts from the Devout Treatise and letters (465--77).]
      68. McGuire, J. "William Roper's Life of More: The Working Methods of a Tudor Biographer." Moreana 23 (1969): 59--65. [On Roper's Use of More's last letters (Rogers #197--218).]
      69. Marc'hadour, G. "Budé of Paris and More of London." Moreana 19/20 (1968): 157--64.
      70. Marc'hadour, G. "Thomas More convertit Martin Dorp à l'humanisme érasmien?" Thomas More: 1477--1977, Colloque international tenu en novembre 1977. Ed. A. Gerlo. Actes de l'Institut pour l'Étude de la Renaissance 6. Brussels: Éditions de l'Université de Bruxelles, 1980. 13--25. [Rogers #15 and CW 15.]
      71. Marc'hadour, G. "Thomas More in Emulation and Defense of Erasmus." Erasmus of Rotterdam: The Man and the Scholar. Ed J. S. Weiland and W. Th. M. Frijhoff. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1988. 203--14. [Rogers #15, #60, #75, #83 and CW 15.]
      72. Martz, L. L. "The Art of Improvisation." A Dialogue of Comfort. Vol. 12 of The Yale Edition of the Complete Works of St. Thomas More. Ed. L. L. Martz and F. Manley. New Haven: Yale UP, 1976. lvii--lxv. Rev. vers. of lix--lxv in "Last Letters and A Dialogue of Comfort." Thomas More: The Search for the Inner Man. New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. 55--64, 107. [On the relationship between A Dialogue of Comfort and Margaret Roper's "Letter to Alice Alington."]
      73. Mason, H. A. "They Haven't Got No Noses." Cambridge Quarterly 18 (1989): 129--59. [Rev.: G. Marc'hadour, Moreana 114 (1993): 99--100. Essentially a ``review article" of CW 15, but very difficult to summarize. Mason is very critical of Kinney's high estimate of the importance of More's Letter to Dorp.]
      74. Meulon, H. "La docilité chez Thomas More." Moreana 12 (1966): 11--28. [On "obedience" in More's Prison Letters.]
      75. Meulon, H. "La pensée du ciel chez Thomas More." Moreana 27/28 (1970): 5--13. [On Margaret Roper's "Letter to Alice Alington."]
      76. Meulon, H. "Thomas More et la souffrance." Moreana 37 (1973): 53--60. [On suffering in the Dialogue of Comfort and in More's 'Prison Letters.']
      77. Murphy, C. M. "An Epistolary Defence of Erasmus: Thomas More and an English Carthusian." Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Turonensi. Ed. J.-C. Margolin. De Pétrarque à Descartes, 38. 2 vols. Paris: J. Vrin, 1980. 329--47. [Summ.: A. J. Geritz, English Literary Renaissance 22 (1992): 120--21. Rogers #83 and CW 15.]
      78. Nelson, W. "The Friendship of Thomas More and John Colet: An Early Document." Modern Language Quarterly 1 (1940): 459--60. [On More's letter to Colet, Rogers #3 (1504), and a document in Westminster Abbey in which More witnessed Colet's resignation (1502/03) from Goodeaster.]
      79. Phillips, M. M. "Erasmus and Biography." University of Toronto Quarterly 42 (1971): 185--201. [Sees Erasmus' biography of More (Allen #999) as Suetonian in inspiration.]
      80. Phillips, M. M. "The Correspondence of Erasmus and Thomas More." Thomas More: 1477--1977, Colloque international tenu en novembre 1977. Ed. A. Gerlo. Actes de l'Institut pour l'Étude de la Renaissance 6. Brussels: Éditions de l'Université de Bruxelles, 1980. 27--37.
      81. Pineas, R. "John Frith." Thomas More and Tudor Polemics. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1968. 173--191, 253--56. [on John Frith's use of Rhetoric and logic, and on More's Letter against Frith.]
      82. Rogers, E. F. "A Calendar of the Correspondence of Sir Thomas More." English Historical Review 37 (1922): 546--64. [Gives a brief desciption (sender, recipient, incipit, time, place), and sometimes an annotation, of 205 surviving letters to or from More (more letters have been found since.) This calendar led eventually to the publication twenty-five years later of E. F. Rogers' edition of The Correspondence of Sir Thomas More (1947) ([8]).]
      83. Rogers, E. F. "Sir Thomas More's Letter to Bugenhagen." The Modern Churchman 35 (1946): 350--60. Rpt. in Essential Articles for the Study of Thomas More. Ed. R. S. Sylvester and G. Marc'hadour. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1977. 447--54, 663--64.
      84. Sargent, D. "Singularity." Moreana 15/16 (1967): 311--14. [On the 'Pie-Powder Court' episode in the "Letter to Alice Alington."]
      85. Schoeck, R. J. "On the Letters of Thomas More." Moreana 15/16 (1967): 193--203.
      86. Schrenck, G. "Profils d'Humanistes: Budé, Érasme, More d'après leur correspondance (1500---1530)." Travaux de linguistique et de littérature [Strasbourg] 21:2 (1983): 105--19.
      87. Silva, Á. de. "Sir Thomas More y la Teologia: El Quehacer Teológico según la Carta a Martin van Dorp" [The Mission of Theology According to More's Letter to Dorp]. Studium 17 (1977): 513--27. [Rev.: D. Kinney, Moreana 69 (1981): 71--72. Rogers #15 and CW 15.]
      88. Sullivan, F. "The Letter of the Law of a Christian Socrates." Moreana 15/16 (1967): 304--10. [Compares More's Prison Letters to Plato's Phaedo and Apology.]
      89. Surtz, E. "More's Apologia pro Utopia sua." Modern Language Quarterly 19 (1958): 319--24. [Summ.: J. Webber, Abstracts of English Studies 2 (1959): 907. On More's second 'Letter to Peter Giles' in the 1517 Utopia as epilogue.]
      90. Sylvester, R. S. "Conscience and Consciousness: Thomas More." The Author in His Work: Essays on a Problem in Criticism. Ed. L. L. Martz and A. Williams. New Haven: Yale UP, 1978. 163--74. [Summ.: J. P. Warren, Moreana 62 (1979): 146. On conscience in More's works, especially in the 'Prison Letters.']
      91. Sylvester, R. S. "Thomas More: Humanist in Action." Medieval and Renaissance Studies Ed. O. B. Hardison, Jr. Chapel Hill, NC: U of North Carolina P, 1966. 125--37. Rpt. in Essential Articles for the Study of Thomas More. Ed. R. S. Sylvester and G. Marc'hadour. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1977. 462--69, 665--66. [Rogers #15, #60, #75, #83 and CW 15; Rogers #86 and CW 3/2, App. C.]
      92. Telle, E. "Thomas More, le moine et Érasme." Bibliothèque d'Humanisme et Renaissance 51 (1989): 77--105. [Summ.: G. Marc'hadour, Moreana 113 (1993): 65--66. On More's defence of Erasmus in his letter to John Batmanson.]
      93. Villoslada, P. G. "Tomas Moro en las epístolas de Erasmo." Razon y Fe 109 (1935): 303--24 + 110 (1936): 328--52.
      94. White, T. I. "Legend and Reality: The Friendship Between More and Erasmus." Supplementum Festivum: Studies in Honor of Paul Oskar Kristeller. Ed. J. Hankins, J. Monfasani and F. Purnell, Jr. Binghamton, NY: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies 49, 1987. 489--504. [On the letters between More and Erasmus in the period 1520--1535.]
      95. Wright, N. E. "The Name and the Signature of the Author of Margaret Roper's Letter to Alice Alington." Creative Imitation: New Essays on Renaissance Literature in Honor of Thomas M. Greene. Ed. D. Quint, M. W. Ferguson, G. W. Pigman III, W. A. Rebhorn. Binghampton, NY: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies 95, 1992. 239--57. [Summ.: D. Quint and M. W. Ferguson, ibid., p.3. A Foucaultian feminist analysis.]