Non comedetis fruges mendacii

Chartaceous presence, material impact:
Works by Paduan Aristotelians in German libraries (a bibliometric study)



Author: Dr. Heinrich C. Kuhn


Paper read: 2000-09-04, Padova, Palazzo del Bo
Occasion: International Symposium In memoriam Charles B. Schmitt: The presence of Paduan Aristotelianism in Early Modern Philosophy


Nota bene: This paper represents the texts as I read it at Padua (except some minor oral additions not present here). Thus the text presented here is slightly (slightly only!) superior to the handout provided for the participants at the conference. Things that should be added have not yet been added, things that should be changed have not yet been changed ….


Nota bene etiam: Reactions to this paper were extremely helpful in some cases: Some of the participants of the conference (especially Jill Kraye, David A. Lines, Charles Lohr and Ian Maclean) shared with me important and valuable arguments and information; lots of thanks to all of them!!! I'll try to incorporate as much of it as possible into the version of this paper that is to be printed with the acts of the conference. If that version should be in some aspects better than the one presented here, most of such improvement will be due to these participants to the Padua conference.


Document created: 2000-09-14
Last update: 2000-09-14


Content:



Text as it was read:

Chartaceous presence, material impact:

Works by Paduan Aristotelians in German libraries

(a bibliometric study)

Ladies and Gentlemen,

a philosopher might read another philosopher's text and understand it and use it and quote it, · he might read the text and not understand and not use and not quote it, · he might quote the text and not read it, he might use it and not understand it, etc. § Many of the papers at this conference on "the presence of Paduan aristotelianism in early modern philosophy" will deal with the traces of such behaviour. I will not do so. Instead I'll deal with part of the "material" preconditions that have to be fulfilled in order that a text can be understood, or misunderstood, or used, or read, or quoted:

In order to have an impact a work needs to be read; in order to be read it has to be in a place where the reader has access to it; part of the results of past presence for access is nowadays presence in libraries.

Most of the papers presented here were or will be about conclusions that can be drawn from real books. My paper is about virtual books: about representations of books in cataloguing databases, in the German regional library union catalogues. Most of this paper presents inferences from the result of a census of works by "Paduan aristotelians" ; [1] printed before 1700 [2] and catalogued in these databases: I searched for works by 13 persons [3] who taught philosophy at Padua between the advent of printing and the mid of the 17th century, and fed the results of these searches (records representing a bit more than 1100 books) into a database of my own, added some flags that might help to group those records, and then tried to find out things that can be found out by grouping and counting these records.

At the basis of most of what I'll talk about in this paper are numbers.

Most of these numbers are (at least to some degree) false . [4]

There are a number of reasons for this. As I promised to Prof. Piaia to talk for not longer than 30 minutes and 10 seconds, and as the main subject of my paper is not "Caveats concerning the data collected by Heinrich C. Kuhn for his paper", but "Chartaceous presence, material impact: Works by Paduan aristotelians in German libraries (a bibliometric [5] study)", I'll just mention the main reasons: § Not all German libraries have some presence in the catalogues I used; § not all the libraries present there are present there with all of their holdings; § the records presented there are at various levels of cataloguing, § they reflect different rules for cataloguing , [6] § cataloguing into these databases of works by Paduan aristotelians is not yet finished but continued probably even as we meet here, § and, as already mentioned: I did not search for works by just anybody who ever taught philosophy in Padua in the old times, but just for works by 13 persons: · Gaetano da Thiene, · Nicoletto Vernia, · Agostino Nifo, · Pietro Pomponazzi, · Marco Antonio Zimara, · Marcantonio Genua, · Archangelo Mercenario, · Vincenzo Maggi, · Alessandro Piccolomini, · Giacomo Zabarella, · Cesare Cremonini, · Giorgio Raguseo and · Fortunio Liceti . [7]

In spite of this: the data collected and its use will in any case permit the demonstration of part of the kinds of inferences that can be drawn from that types of data, they may serve as an example of the bibliometric studies that have become possible thanks to the existence of electronic union catalogues, and they may even permit the presentation some results that may present some of you with some - though probably minor - surprises and some food for thought.

If the assumption, that our interests in the works of Paduan Aristotelians are more or less the same as where the interests of those who from the 15th century onwards bought their books and thus sometimes made them the material basis for presences of the thought and works of Paduan Aristotelians in German early modern philosophy and preserved them in a way that led to their entry into and survival [8] in a German library, if this assumption about the identity of interests now and then is correct, and if the interests of those present at this conference are somehow representative of the interest that nowadays exists in works by Paduan Aristotelians that had major impact on early modern Germany: if these assumptions are correct: then we may expect, that the work by Paduan aristotelians that has most material impact, that has most chartaceous presence in German libraries, that this work is a text about some or several aspects of epistemology, and that it is with quite some probability a work by Giacomo Zabarella.

And indeed: this is almost true:

[Thumbnail: Link to enlarged version of image 1]

[Image 1: Popularity of works]

With 41 copies each Zabarella's Opera Logica and his De rebus naturalibus head the list, then there is quite some gap, and only then the graph of popularity begins to look smooth as one would assume it to do. The popularity of the two mentioned works by Zabarella is clearly extraordinary; on the first three places of the "ordinary" list, however, there are three works, some of you might (like me) not have expected there: Nifo's De pulchro et amore (with 24 copies), Liceti's work(s) about monsters (with 23 copies) and Nifo's De auguriis with 22 copies . [9]

This may serve as a first indication of possible future surprises. An indeed: Once we look not at the popularity of single works (or collections thereof), but at the popularity of the authors, the winner is no longer Zabarella, but - the winner is - Agostino Nifo (with 247 copies), closely followed by Fortunio Liceti (with 246 copies), Zabarella comes in third (with 175 copies - just some 70% of the number of copies existing of works by Nifo), closely followed by Alessandro Piccolomini (with 172 copies), then there is a considerable gap, after which there are Pomponazzi (79 copies), Zimara (69 copies) and Cremonini (42 copies). None of the other authors reaches 30 copies:

[Thumbnail: Link to enlarged version of image 2]

[Image 2: Popularity of authors]

If we look at the most popular authors and have a look at which were the subjects in which they are the most popular, the results we get, are these:

Author

Subject

Number of copies

Liceti

Philosophia naturalis

153

Liceti

Antiquarian studies

58

Liceti

Philosophia

15

Liceti

Philosophia practica

8

Liceti

Various or other subjects

8

Liceti

Not linked by hck to any subject (subject unknown)

2

Liceti

Philosophia: Metaphysica

2

Nifo

Philosophia naturalis

126

Nifo

Philosophia

45

Nifo

Philosophia: Logica

31

Nifo

Philosophia: Metaphysica

21

Nifo

Philosophia practica

14

Nifo

Miscelaneous

5

Nifo

Antiquarian studies

2

Nifo

Various or other subjects

2

Nifo

Philosophia: Rhetorica

1

Piccolomini

Philosophia naturalis

83

Piccolomini

Philosophia practica

39

Piccolomini

Literature (Belles lettres)

33

Piccolomini

Philosophia: Rhetorica

9

Piccolomini

Philosophia: Poetica

5

Piccolomini

Various or other subjects

2

Piccolomini

Not linked by hck to any subject (subject unknown)

1

Pomponazzi

Philosophia naturalis

58

Pomponazzi

Philosophia

21

Zabarella

Philosophia: Logica

93

Zabarella

Philosophia naturalis

74

Zabarella

Philosophia

8

[Table 1: Subjects of the 5 most popular authors]

Zabarella is the only one present primarily as a writer on logic, all the others amongst the 5 most popular authors examined here are most prominently present as authors of works about philosophy of nature - including Alessandro Piccolomini.

Once we completely shift our focus from authors to subjects, we see the following:

[Thumbnail: Link to enlarged version of image 3]

[Image 3: Popularity of subjects: non-detailed view] [10]

More than half of the total of the copies examined here are copies of works on philosophy of nature.

This probably merits a more detailed look at the popularity of the various "fields" of philosophy of nature that are represented in the sample : [11]

[Thumbnail: Link to enlarged version of image 4]

[Image 4: Popularity: philosophy of nature]

No single field is predominant, but that there are less works for Physics , [12] than for subjects concerning the generation of animals [13] and De generatione et corruptione [14] might be not exactly like what one might have expected . [15] Of the 90 copies that represent the context of De cúlo 68 are copies of rather "general" works, whereas 11 are copies of works concerning phenomena, that for Aristotle himself where either inexistent (like new stars) or 'meteoric' phenomena (like comets) and 11 concern the prime mover. Of the 64 copies concerning De generatione animalium 17 concern the subject of "innate heat" (that may be dealt with also as "belonging" to Meteora IV ). [16] By far most popular, however, with 168 copies, are works, that in some way or other can be assigned to De anima. A more detailed look shows a (probably not surprising) great popularity of works concerning human immortality, and a (perhaps more surprising) considerable interest in works concerning the sensitive soul:

[Thumbnail: Link to enlarged version of image 5]

[Image 5: Popularity: detail: de anima]

If we ask for the most popular authors amongst those writing on philosophy of nature, we get the following answer:

[Thumbnail: Link to enlarged version of image 6]

[Image 6: Popularity of authors on philosophy of nature]

Liceti outnumbers Nifo by 153 to 126; Piccolomini follows third with 83 copies. Zabarella (whose De rebus naturalibus is, as mentioned, one of the two most popular books by Paduan aristotelians found in German libraries ), [17] follows fourth with 74 copies.

Let's shift the subject.

As you will remember, after "philosophy of nature", the second most popular special field of philosophy was logic . [18]

[Thumbnail: Link to enlarged version of image 7]

[Image 7: Popularity of areas of Logic]

There is no single copy for a single work dealing specially with the categories, - and the Sophistical Refutations are more popular than the Topics, - but at least one thing is consistent with the traditional views of the areas of importance of logical works by the Paduan aristotelians: Analytica posteriora is the work triggering the most popular special texts by them in this field.

And when asking for the most popular Paduan authors in the realm of Logic, we get an answer, that is - again - rather as expected (and, just for a change, doesn't need graphic illustration): Zabarella leads with 93 copies, followed by Nifo with 31 and Zimara with 4.

It is apparently intuitive, that the chances for resonance in Germany of works by the Paduan authors this paper is about would be dependent not only on the prominence of the author and the interest in the subject, but also on the language, the work is available in. And not all of the editions in the sample are editions of Latin texts: there are present also three vernaculars: Italian, French and German. Thus it might be worthwhile to examine whether there are indicators for a language barrier (with a special look at Italian). Of the about 400 editions present in the sample 303 are in Latin, 90 in Italian, 6 in French and 2 in German.

If we look at the average number of copies found per edition according to the language of that edition, we might seem to find an indication of such a language barrier:

[Thumbnail: Link to enlarged version of image 8]

[Image 8: average number of copies per Edition according to language]

Latin is most prominent, German follows next, and Italian editions enjoy just a bit more than half the popularity of the Latin ones.

However: This is misleading [19] : The picture is quite different if we look at the works instead of the editions: in this case the picture is as follows:

[Thumbnail: Link to enlarged version of image 9]

[Image 9: average number of copies per Work according to language]

Latin remains most prominent, but the difference to Italian is a minor one. It can be concluded, that publishing in Italian instead of Latin did not considerably diminish the chances of a certain work to have some sort of impact in Germany.

Up to know I have dealt with "Germany" without distinguishing between any possible difference of "profile" between the 46 libraries in the sample. One might want to ask, whether this is licit. I plotted the popularity of the various subjects in the various libraries, and received the following graph:

[Thumbnail: Link to enlarged version of image 10]

[Image 10: Popularity of the single subjects in various libraries]

With the possible exception of some over average representation of works on philosophy of nature and on practical philosophy in the Bavarian State library , [20] the profiles are (at least in my present view) similar enough.

It might, however, be worth mentioning, that, although 46% of the libraries in the sample that hold copies of works by "Paduan aristotelians" are situated in the north of Germany, they do hold only 23% of the copies in the sample . [21] This might be an indication that the impact of the "Paduan aristotelians" on Germany was a predominantly southern phenomenon. But: This may be so, but it is not necessarily so: it might be as well an artefact created by different progress of retrospective cataloguing activities in the south and in the north of Germany and by the absence of records from the Berlin/Prussian state library due to the inexistence of electronic catalogues for older materials held there . [22]

From a conclusion not drawn from the sample to uses not made of the sample: I have now talked for some 23 minutes and presented you with something like a dozen examples of what types of information can be gathered · and what conclusions can - by the use of bibliometric data - be drawn concerning the impact of Paduan Aristotelians in Germany. Additional questions can be asked and can be answered by use of the same (or similar) data. I will not try to do so here and now, but I will provide you with some examples of the additional uses that type of data might be usable for:

One might go into more detail concerning those minor differences in the "profiles" of the libraries that have holdings of works by Paduan Aristotelians ; [23] one might ask what are the libraries of major impact for single authors [24] - this last one is by the way indeed a question that shows some differences in profile of the single libraries.

If one should ask what is the best German library for studies on the impact of the Paduans in Germany, there would be an obvious answer: Munich's Bavarian state library, with its 284 copies far ahead of the 98 copies of its closest competitor, the Dresden state and university library; although there would be an obvious restriction to the truth of this statement: The Munich state library is an ideal place for such studies, unless there are five persons from Munich preparing at the same time papers for the same Padua conference on "the presence of Paduan aristotelianism in early modern philosophy" … .

There are a number of other questions one may ask on the basis of bibliometric data like the one used here, questions the answers to which are less dependant on 21st century connections between Padua and Munich; § such questions concern e.g. the provenience of the various copies in the cases where information about proveniences is available ; [25] § one can examine what works and what editions where bound together to one physical volume , [26] and by examining the years of the editions bound together one can try to get information about the time when those editions where collected together into one volume . [27]

One can ask for the "other activities" of those (German or other) printers who printed the works in the sample , [28] and in the case of the Germans either build an new, not too tiny database for the thousands of records available for Wechel , [29] marvel about the transnational Ciotti enterprise and their reasons to print a certain title either at Venice or at Cologne, find Nifo's De falso diluvii prognostatione printed by Grimm & Wirsung next to works by and concerning Luther and works in German and Latin by Erasmus , [30] one may suspect that one underestimated the Schönwetter family, wonder whether the almost complete concentration of the Sybold press [31] on material of interest to medics might have been among the reasons of the short life of that press , [32] etc. etc. pp.

One could try to find out, whether German printers had a more successful approach to the German market, than the Italian ones - and find out, that most probably late printers in the Netherlands had ; [33] and that the situation shows no clear winner of the possible contests with the exception of Zimara's Antrum and Problemata (where there is a clear predominance of German prints) and Zabarella, where non-Italian printers seem to rule the German market.

Let that suffice as examples for questions that can be asked and answered on the basis of bibliometric data like the sample used here.

The conclusions one may draw from the responses to the various questions I dealt with in the first (and illustrated) part of this paper, are rarely - if ever - sensational, but some of them might be worth meditation - especially as the conclusions either come as questions, or can lead to questions. Conclusions and questions like these:

My impression is, that bibliometric studies like those presented to you here and now, tend to produce results that seldom are of the type where the mind comes happily to a rest, but that these results are most often of the kind that induces to pursue further questions, of the kind that stimulates to investigate additional problems.

The paper read to you here was something of an experiment. Whether you judge the experiment and its result to be of any value: I don't know. But if the results are of the type of results just mentioned, studies like the rather tentative and imperfect one presented to you here, might be of some potential service to further studies of intellectual history.

Thank you very much for your attention and your patience. And thanks in advance for your comments and your questions.

Thank you.



Appendices

Appendix A:

Popularity of works by Paduan Aristotelians in German Libraries

Author

Abbrev. title

Number of copies

Zabarella

De rebus naturalibus

41

Zabarella

Opera logica

41

Nifo

De pulchro (et amore)

24

Liceti

De monstris

23

Nifo

De Auguriis

22

Pomponazzi

Opera

20

Zabarella

De doctrinae ordine apologia

19

Piccolomini

Della istituzione della vita

18

Pomponazzi

De immortalitate

18

Mercenario

Dilucidationes

17

Piccolomini

Della Sfera

16

Nifo

De falsa diluvii prognosticatione

16

Liceti

De lucernis

16

Pomponazzi

De nat. eff. causis sive de incatat.

15

Piccolomini

Alessandro

14

Nifo

In De anima

14

Zabarella

In De anima

14

Nifo

In Metaph.

13

Zabarella

In An. post.

13

Piccolomini

Della Filosofia naturale

13

Nifo

De diebus criticis

13

Zimara

Tabula

13

Zimara

Theoremata

12

Zimara

Problemata

12

Zabarella

Tabulae logicae

12

Mercenario

De putredine

12

Piccolomini

Della istituzione morale

12

Piccolomini

Amor costante

11

Nifo

De intellectu

11

Nifo

In Meteor.

11

Zabarella

In Phys. (de nat. scient. const.)

10

Liceti

Pyronarcha

10

Zimara

Antrum magico-medicum

10

Zimara

Solutiones

10

Piccolomini

Della Sfera (lat.)

10

Liceti

Hieroglyphica

10

Piccolomini

Instrumento della filosofia naturale

10

Gaetanus <de Thienis>

Super De anima

10

Liceti

De quaesitis

9

Cremonini

De calido innato et semine

9

Pomponazzi

In Metero. 4

9

Liceti

De immortalitate

9

Zabarella

In Phys.

9

Nifo

In Metaph. 12

8

Piccolomini

Della creanza delle Donne

8

Zabarella

Opera

8

Nifo

In De coelo

8

Liceti

De ortu animae hum.ae

8

Liceti

De pietate Aristotelis

8

Piccolomini

In Mechanic.

8

Liceti

Litheophosphorus

8

Piccolomini

Della grandezza della terra et dell'acqua

7

Nifo

In Soph. Elench.

7

Nifo

In Phys.

7

Nifo

In Av. De mixtione

7

Nifo

In An. prior.

7

Nifo

De primi motoris infinitate

7

Nifo

In Av. De subst. orb.

7

Liceti

De spont. viv. ortu

7

Gaetanus <de Thienis>

Super meteor.

7

Cremonini

De origine et principatu

7

Liceti

Viventes sine alimentum

6

Liceti

Anima non propensa

6

Liceti

Alleg. De gen.

6

Nifo

In Av. Destr. Destr.

6

Liceti

Ara Pythia

6

Piccolomini

Theoriche: dei pianeti

6

Liceti

De lucidis ...

6

Liceti

De intellecu agente

6

Nifo

In Av. De beat.

6

Vernia

De unitate

6

Vernia

De subiecto phil. nat.

6

Liceti

De annulis

6

Liceti

De anim. coext. corp.

6

Piccolomini

Ortensio

5

Maggi

In poet.

5

Liceti

Anima non tribuens

5

Pomponazzi

De nutr. et augm.

5

Liceti

Alas

5

Nifo

De nostr. calam. causis

5

Genua

In De anima

5

Liceti

De novis astris

5

Cremonini

Disp. de coelo

5

Liceti

De centr. et circumf.

5

Piccolomini

In Rhet. 3

5

Raguseo

De divinatione

5

Piccolomini

In poet.

5

Zimara

Antrum magico-medicum (dt.)

4

Nifo

De immortalitate animae

4

Liceti

Mulctra: De c.i.

4

Nifo

De daemonibus

4

Liceti

De const. hom. in utero

4

Zimara

De primo cognito

4

Liceti

Ara mystica

4

Liceti

Athos

4

Liceti

Syr. Theocrit.

4

Liceti

De lunae luce

4

Liceti

De motu cometarum

4

Liceti

De natura et arte

4

Liceti

De natura primo movente

4

Liceti

De feriis animae

4

Nifo

In De interpr.

4

Cremonini

De formis 4 corp. simp.

4

Piccolomini

Delle stelle fisse

4

Nifo

Raggion. Moral.

4

Nifo

In Top.

4

Cremonini

Pompe funebri

4

Cremonini

Tract. 3 de sensibus

4

Cremonini

De calido innato

4

Nifo

In Ant. Post.

4

Nifo

De vera vivendi libertate

4

Pomponazzi

De reactione

4

Gaetanus <de Thienis>

De sensu agente

4

Genua

De immortalitate

3

Liceti

De lumine

3

Liceti

De transformatione hominum

3

Raguseo

Disp. peripat.

3

Nifo

Moralia

3

Pomponazzi

Apologia

3

Liceti

De analogia mundi et hominis

3

Piccolomini

In Rhet.

3

Liceti

De centru motus caeli

3

Nifo

De verissim. temp. signis

3

Nifo

In An. post.

3

Cremonini

Expl. proem. phys.

2

Liceti

De natura assistente

2

Nifo

De his que ab optimis Principibus agenda

2

Piccolomini

De iride

2

Liceti

Ara Lemnia

2

Piccolomini

De novo calendario

2

Liceti

De comet. etc.

2

Piccolomini

Alessandro?

2

Piccolomini

Prima parte della filosofia naturale

2

Nifo

Dialectica ludrica

2

Liceti

De prop. operum hist.a

2

Pomponazzi

Q. an actio realis

2

Liceti

De vita

2

Liceti

Enc. Ep.

2

Liceti

Hydrolog. peripat.

2

Nifo

In Ptol. Apotelesm.

2

Cremonini

Nascimento

2

Liceti

Syr. Publ.

2

Pomponazzi

De immisione et remiss. form.

2

Cremonini

De quinta caeli subst.

1

Zimara

Problemata (franz.)

1

Gaetanus <de Thienis>

In De caelo

1

Zimara

In Phys.

1

Zimara

Problemata (dt.)??

1

Gaetanus <de Thienis>

Super Phys.

1

Gaetanus <de Thienis>

De intent. et rem. form.

1

Gaetanus <de Thienis>

De reatione

1

Nifo

Cortigiano

1

Piccolomini

Della istituzione morale (franz.)

1

Piccolomini

Della sfere

1

Piccolomini

In Mechanic.(it.)

1

Piccolomini

In Rhet. 2

1

Piccolomini

Istrumento

1

Nifo

In Rhet.

1

Piccolomini

Lettura

1

Piccolomini

Sacfrificio

1

Nifo

In De hist. an.

1

Nifo

In De gen. et corr.

1

Piccolomini

Theoricae: dei pianeti

1

Liceti

Laureae

1

Pomponazzi

Tractatus contradictionum

1

Zimara

De movente et moto

1

Vernia

Visiones

1

Zabarella

De medio demonstrationis

1

Liceti

Opera

1

Piccolomini

Della Sfera (franz.)

1

Zabarella

De methodis

1

Zabarella

De natura Logicae

1

Zabarella

De propositionibus necessariis

1

Zabarella

De quarta syllogismorum

1

Zabarella

De regressu

1

Zabarella

De speciebus demonstrationis

1

Zabarella

De tribus praecognitis

1

Nifo

De sensu agente

1


Appendix B:

:Popularity of Paduan Aristotelians in German Libaries: Table by authors

Author

Copies of his works

Nifo

247

Liceti

246

Zabarella

175

Piccolomini

172

Pomponazzi

79

Zimara

69

Cremonini

42

Mercenario

29

Gaetanus <de Thienis>

25

Vernia

13

Raguseo

8

Genua

8

Maggi

5


Appendix C:

Popularity of "fields" of philosophy of nature

Field of Natural Philosophy

Number of Copies

De anima

168

De coelo

90

In general or without special attrib. by hck

74

De generatione animalium

64

Meteora

46

De generatione et corruptione

43

Special problems

41

Physica

36

Miscelaneous

30

Mechanica

9

Mineralogy

8

De partibus animalium

7

De historia animalium

1


Appendix D:

Popularity of "fields" of philosophy of nature (more detailed view)

Subfield

Detail

Number of copies

In general or without special attrib. by hck

74

Physica

In general

35

Physica

Special problems

1

De coelo

In general or without special attrib. by hck

68

De coelo

"meteoric phenomena"

11

De coelo

near metaph: About god

11

De generatione et corruptione

In general or without special attrib. by hck

30

De generatione et corruptione

some "calculatoric" approach

13

Meteora

In general

21

Meteora

Special problems

16

Meteora

Liber IVus

9

De anima

In general

59

De anima

Vegetative soul

10

De anima

Sensitive soul

33

De anima

Intellective soul

23

De anima

On immortality

43

De historia animalium

1

De partibus animalium

In general or without special attrib. by hck

7

De generatione animalium

In general or without special attrib. by hck

47

De generatione animalium

De calido innato

17

Mechanica

In general

9

Special problems

Not linked by hck to *one* of Arist.'s treatises

41

Mineralogy

Not linked by hck to *one* of Arist.'s treatises

8

Miscelaneous

30


Appendix E:

Popularity of "fields" of logics (more detailed view)

Field

Subfield

Number of copies

In general or without special attrib. by hck

53

De interpretatione

In general

4

Analytica priora

In general or without special attrib. by hck

8

Analytica posteriora

In general or without special attrib. by hck

20

Analytica posteriora

Special problems

24

Topica

In general

4

Elenchi

In general

7

Not linked by hck to *one* of Arist.'s logical treatises

6

Not linked by hck to *one* of Arist.'s logical treatises

Dialectics

2


Appendix F:

"Impact" of "Paduan aristotelians" on various German libraries

Name of library

Copies

Region

BSB München

284

South

SuUB Dresden

98

South

SuStB Augsburg

82

South

UB Leipzig

71

South

SuUB Göttingen

66

North

UB München

64

South

UB Erlangen-Nürnberg

62

South

HAB Wolfenbüttel

56

North

UB Tübingen

37

South

StuUB Köln

31

North

UuLB Jena

30

South

HAAB Weimar

24

South

Württembergische Landesbibliothek Stuttgart

24

South

UB Mannheim

22

South

UuLB Halle

20

North

UB Freiburg

19

South

StB Trier

18

North

UB Augsburg

18

South

UB Rostock

10

North

UuLB Münster

10

North

SB Regensburg

8

South

Arnoldinum Steinfurt

7

North

Stadtarchiv u StB Soest

7

North

UuLB Bonn

7

North

Koeln Erzb.Dioez.

4

North

UB Heidelberg

4

South

UB Kiel

4

North

UuLB Düsseldorf

4

North

BVB: no library indicated

3

South

Konstanz, Heinrich-Suso-Gymnasium

3

South

Peutinger-Gymnasium (Ellwangen)

2

South

UB Greifswald

2

North

UB Konstanz

2

South

UB Würzburg

2

South

B.St.Albert Bornheim

1

North

HBZ Köln: keine Bibliotheksangabe

1

North

Historische Bibliothek der Stadt Rastatt

1

South

Historische Bibliothek der Stadt Rastatt im Ludwig-Wilhelm-Gymnasium

1

South

Leopold-Sophien-Bibliothek Überlingen

1

South

Marienbibliothek Halle

1

North

StiftsB Xanten

1

North

UB Bielefeld

1

North

UB Eichstätt

1

South

UB FU Berlin

1

North

UB PhTh HS Geistingen (Hennef)

1

North

ZB Med (Köln)

1

North



Footnotes



[1] Joseph Freedman has warned (with good reasons) against the use of terms like "Aristotelian" as a label for 16th and 17th century philosophers (see Freedman, Joseph S.: Philosophy and the arts in central Europe, 1500-1700. - Teaching and texts at schools and universities. Aldershot [Ashgate] 1999, I, 10-13). The term "Paduan aristotelian" is used in this paper without any ideological load: it is used just as a sort of handy label equivalent to the longer "professors of philosophy subjects at Padua university in the later 15th, 16th and earlier 17th centuries".
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[2] Works printed after 1699 have not been included (thus e.g. there are no numbers for the Tübingen 1791 edition of Pomponazzi's "De immortalitate animae", and the same holds true for reprints, xerocopies, and all copies on Microfiche (at least wherever I was able to tell from the data in the catalogues that the record I was seeing was about such a thing ...).
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[3] A complete study concerning all of the "Paduan aristotelians" would have to include at least all those mentioned by Riccoboni (Riccoboni, Antonio: De Gymnasio Patavino ... Commentariorum Libri Sex, Patavii [Apud Franciscum Bolzetam] 1598 [he mentions 9 metaphysicians on f. 20vs, 34 professors for natural philosophy {incl. Parva naturalia} on f. 22v-24r, 39 persons reading on moral philosophy on f. 24rs, 45 professors of Logic in general, and 67 "Explicatores sophisticæ" on ff. 26v-27v]) and Tomasini (Tomasini, Giacomo Filippo: Gynasium patavinum ... Libris V comprehensum. Utini [Ex Typographia Nicolai Schiratti] 1654 [inter alia 27 metaphysicians p. 287-290 and 45 teachers of moral philosophy {p. 322-324}, not to mention those reading on natural philosophy and logic ...). To check for the presence of all of them probably would be something for a patient Hercules or a studious slave, in any case for somebody who strives for more perfection, than I do. I made, however, some probes for several of the authors not used by me for my sample, and found for none of those I probed for any hit in any of the German regional union catalogues (this includes F. Pendasio!). Thus my impression is, that I certainly did check only a tiny part of those names somebody really rigorous would have checked, but that going for all of the "Paduan aristotelians" from the advent of printing to ca. 1648 would not have led to a significantly increased sample - the most probably only "major" exception being the 11 copies of Bérigard's "Circulus pisanus" (less than 1% of the data in the sample, and not a very aristotelian text ...). (Please note, that I had not checked for works by Francesco Piccolomini - works by whom are present in many copies in German libraries - for the version of this paper that is intended for publication in the acts of the conference. [hck, 2000-09-14])
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[4] Though certainly not intentionally falsified ... .
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[5] Using bibliometric methods for studies on renaissance philosophy seems to be rare. The one major example that I know of is Blum's use of the Data contained in the "Studies in the Renaissance" and "Renaissance Quarterly" versions of Lohr's "Renaissance Latin Aristotle Commentaries" (Blum, Paul Richard: "Der Standardkursus der katholischen Schulphilosophie im 17. Jahrhundert", in: Eckhard Keßler, Charles Lohr & Walter Sparn (edd.): Aristotelismus und Renaissance. - In memoriam Charles B. Schmitt. Wiesbaden [Otto Harrasowitz] 1988, pp. 127-148. This paper here might very well present the first use of a number of union catalogues for a bibliometric study concerning renaissance philosophy - certainly not an excuse for any of its shortcomings, but perhaps an explanation of some of the less evident ones amongst these shortcomings.
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[6] both of which will have led to some misattribution by me of some entries to a certain edition.
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[7] 22 other reasons for "problematic" numbers are: · due to inconsistencies in the union databases sometimes there is one entry for a certain edition and sometimes there are separate entries for texts contained therein; § as the catalogues don't give printers' names for all items, some editions may have been taken for one and the same, that are not identical; § due to the same cause some copies may have been correlated to the wrong edition; § I have not seen all of the texts this paper is about; some weird misconceptions about some of the books that I'll mention my have resulted from this; § specimens that are lost or destroyed have been included where bibliographic evidence of was available that they once existed; § some entries that apparently where entries for old prints may have represented xerocopies, reprints, and the like; § in the case of Gaetano da Thiene I did not create records for his edition of Albert of Saxony's Questions; § in the case of Alessandro Piccolomini · I did not enter data for the works he just edited, · his comedies are present only in part of the cases where they form part of a collection of works by him and other authors, · his de iride is present only in part of the cases where it goes together with Alexander, · poetical works are not present in cases where the attribution of the works to Piccolomini is due to the decision of a librarian and not due to date in available from the item itself; § in the case of Vernia I did create no records for his edition of Walter Burley's Physics-commentary; § in the case of Nifo I did · treat all versions of his commentary on De anima as one work, · and did do the same all versions of his Physics -commentary, · and his Metaphysics; · furthermore, I did not create records for his translations (Physics, De gen. & corr, De interpr., Topica, Parva naturalia); § in the case of Zimara I did include none of his editions; this probably has led to the absence of some records for editions and or copies that contain Aristotle's Problems together with those of Zimara; the editions of John of Jandun that come with Zimara's "annotationes" where likewise not included; § in the case of Mercenario I did not include records for Brigotti's "Theoremata philosophica"; § in the case of Genua I assumed, that the philosopher is not identical with the author of the same name who rote about pastoral theology; § in the case of Liceti · I did not include his "ad epistolam Tomasini de Petrarchae cognominis orthographia responsum" that is included in Tomasini's "Petrarcha redivivus (Patavii [Frambotti] 1650) · and I did treat all the versions of his works on monsters as just one work; § in some cases my own database will most probably contain typographical and factual errors that are due to my limited ability to type correctly and my limited knowledge about the works and editions I am writing about.
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[8] at least a survival long enough to leave traces in the present electronic catalogues (there are in the sample at least 5 BSB München copies that where destroyed in WW II and 1 copy of a book missing from UB München since at least 1869 ...).
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[9] For the rest of the "popularity list" see Appendix A .
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[10] It should be noted, that I did assign works with some astrological content (like Nifo's "De falsa diluvii prognostatione" and his "De diebus criticis" not to astrology, but to meteorology (special problems) and philosophy in general (subsubject "De divinatione"). Astrology is just used for books I did not know to deal with better, than to regard them as works of astrology pure, unmixed and proper.
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[11] cf. Appendix C .
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[12] 36
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[13] 64
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[14] 43
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[15] for more detail see Appendix D .
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[16] cf. the 9 copies of works especially concerned with the fourth book of the Meteora.
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[17] See above: Image 1
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[18] for detailed numbers see Appendix E .
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[19] because of the different number of editions found in the sample for works in the different languages
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[20] This focus on natural philosophy in BSB is even a bit stronger than in the graphic presented here, as for this graphic Nifo's "De falsa diluvii prognostatione" was not assigned to natural philosophy.
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[21] North: 44.65% of the libraries and 22.74% of the copies. South: 54.35% of the libraries and 77.26% of the copies.
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[22] cf. http://www.sbb.spk-berlin.de/deutsch/kataloge/bestandsnachweise.html (Version of document: 1999-03-29, seen 2000-08-08: predominantly post 1908 monographs presented electronically in the "BerlinOPAC"; a search there on 2000-08-08 for books by Zabarella resulted in just 3 hits, all of which where for editions from the second half of the 20th century)
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[23] asking for different rankings of popularity of single works or authors.
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[24] For Nifo the 5 most important ones are (in descending order of importance): BSB München, StUB Augsburg, UB Leipzig, UB München, SuUB Dresden; for Liceti we get SuUB Dresden, UB Erlangen-Nürnberg, BSB München, UB Leipzig, SuUB Göttingen; for Zabarella we find: BSB München, SuSTB Augsburg, UB München, UuLB Halle, HAB Wolffenbüttel; for Pomponazzi the top 5 are: BSB München, SuUB Dresden, SuUB Göttingen, HAB Wolfenbüttel, SuUB Augsburg.
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[25] for the cases for which there are data available from the catalogues used for the sample, the numbers are: · 32 copies known to have been formerly owned by private persons, · 7 copies known to have been formerly owned by university libraries, · 19 copies known to have been formerly owned by court libraries or other princely libraries, and · 3 copies known to have been formerly owned by monasteries. One should, however, be aware, that only very few libraries in the sample have up to now added provenience data to their electronic catalogues, and that even in such cases most probably provenience information exists in the "real" copies in cases where it does not exist in the records for these copies.
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[26] The data collected suggests, that the by fast most frequent case is the binding together of several works by one and the same author.
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[27] Here are some examples: § BSB München 2 A.gr.b. 260 : several works from one and the same year (1514), · same for 2 A.gr.b. 270 (1507), · same for 2 A.gr.b. 291 (1514), · 35 years difference for 2 A.gr.b. 296 (1524, 1554, 1559), · 2 years difference for 2 A.gr.b. 306 (1503-1505), · 13 years difference for 2 A.gr.b. 348 (1505-1518), · 54 years for 2 A.gr.b. 363 (1505-1559), ... § UB Leipzig: · 34 years difference for Anat.2220 (1631-1665), · two years for Philos.21-a (1503-1505, § etc. etc. pp.. It should be noted, that the data given in the prior part of this footnote is only for works by the 13 persons examined for this paper, and that works from different dates by other authors may as well also be present in these volumes. My impression is, that there are two quite distinct sorts of volumes: A) "bought together, bound together" and B) "later collectors' items". I have up to now not been able to discover any sort of reliable pattern accord to which a certain edition, work or author could be predicted to find its place with more probability into a volume of type "A" or "B". Nor is my impression, cat certain libraries have extremely predominances of either volumes of type "a" or "B" in their holdings.
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[28] Perhaps the most astonishing examples is Schiratti at Udine who seems to have striven on less than 10 authors, Liceti taking the lion's share, Tomasini following, and B. Selvatico and C. Bérigard being examples of other "Paduan" authors printed in that press.
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[29] 805 titles in the GBV-database, 963 for the BVB database, 2443 in the VK97 (which contains only data for records catalogued electronically before autumn 1997, but which is the only catalogue where you can search for publishers in cases where the local union catalogues do not index the publishers; it is a great shame indeed, that this database will become unavailable by end of this year [2000]!). BTW.: Zetzner is a publishing house that might (almost) as well be worth further study.
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[30] My impression is, that Grimm & Wirsung printed everything that hat chances to sell fast and high.
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[31] Publishing in 1528 Nifo's De diebus criticis.
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[32] apparently ca. 1528 to ca. 1537.
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[33] The Leiden Elsevier print of Cremonini's De calido innato and the Amsterdam Frisius print of Liceti's De monstris both led to more copies in the libraries in the sample, than did the corresponding Italian prints. In this context of potential interest: the 1534 Basle Hervagius print of Nifo's De auguriis is apparently the most popular edition of that work. That the Augsburg print of Nifo's De falsa diluvii prognostatione is found more often than any other edition of this work, may be due to regional proximity.
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hck: Padova 2000-09-04: Works by Paduan Aristoteleans in German libraries 66